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4.1 through 4.3 flashcards for those who have mrs. king

chemical energy

energy held in the bonds that hold the molecules together

why do all things need chemical energy?

move, grow, reproduce, make things, active transport

what turns the food we eat into ATP?

mitochondria

what is the process of the mitochondria turning food into ATP called?

cellular respiration

what does ATP stand for?

adenosine triphosphate

what is the unit of energy that a cell can use?

ATP

what is made during cellular respiration?

ATP

what is broken off of ATP to make it into ADP?

a phosphate

where is all the energy found?

in the high energy bonds

how does ATP turn back into ADP?

it goes to the mitochondria and gets another phosphate

what is the ATP cycle?

ATP  ENERGY - P = ADP  MITOCHONDRIA + P = ATP

what is the number one source of ATP for the cell?

carbohydrates- 36 ATP

what is the second source of ATP?

lipids- 146 ATP

what is the third source of ATP?

protein- about the same as carbohydrates

why are proteins so rarely broke down in the cell?

they are used for so many other things

chemosynthesis

when organisms use surrounding nutrients or chemicals to make or eat food in the absence of sunlight

producers

make their own food through photosynthesis

consumers

eat or consume food

photosynthesis

the process of turning sun into chemical energy for food

where does photosynthesis take place?

chloroplasts

stroma

goo inside of chloroplasts

where do light dependent reactions take place?

thylakoids

where do light independent reactions take place?

stroma

chlorophyll

pigment

where is chlorophyll located?

thylakoids

what is the functions of the thylakoid?

absorbing and using the sunlight

what color does chlorophyll reflect?

green

what is the photosynthesis equation?

Sun + Carbondioxide + Water = Sugar + Oxygen

what elements do the light dependent reactions use?

sun, water, and oxygen

what is the energy from electrons used for?

making ATP and NADPH

what happens when sunlight hits chlorophyll?

electrons get excited and bounce down electron transport chain

ezymes split what to replace electrons lost in the chlorophyll?

H2O molecules

what is the waste product of the split of H2O?

oxygen

electron transport chain

series of proteins in the membrane

what is pumped from low to high concentration in the thylakoids?

hydrogen ions

what do the H+ ions go through during diffusion?

ATP synthase

what elements does the light independent reaction use?

carbon dioxide and sugar

what is another name for the light independent reaction?

sugar factory

how many CO2 molecules are pulled apart and then put back together in a series of steps?

six

what is the end result of the light independent reaction?

C6H12O6

why is glucose important?

everybody's food and oxygen for world

how does a plant store glucose?

either as starch or cellulose (cell wall)

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