true / false: Solar energy is evenly distributed across latitudes and seasons.
The passage of shortwave and longwave energy through either the atmosphere or water.
true / false: A balance of energy input and output exists in our atmosphere.
Intercepted solar radiation; also the single energy input driving the Earth-atmosphere system.
The phenomenon of gas molecules redirecting radiation as it moves toward the surface, changing the direction of the light's movement without altering its wavelengths.
Choose one: Which experiences more scattering? (direct rays, oblique rays)
The downward component of scattered light; incoming insolation is diffused by clouds and atmosphere.
Explains why there is shadowless light on cloudy days (due to multi-directional light).
Insolation entering the atmospere is subject to a change in speed, which also shifts its direction. This bending action is called __________.
The reflective quality of a surface; the percentage of insolation that is reflected.
Energy that is returned to space without being converted into heat or performing any work.
(darker / lighter) colors have lower albedos, because they reflect a lower percentage of energy (they absorb most).
Which has a higher albedo value: snow or asphalt?
An increase in albedo caused by clouds (occurs when clouds act to reflect insolation).
An increase in greenhouse warming caused by clouds (occurs when clouds trap insolation from Earth's surface).
This term describes the process of radiation being changed into infrared radiation or for use in photosynthesis. It's the opposite of reflection, in which the energy isn't really used on Earth.
What percentage of radiation on Earth's surface is reflected back? (31%, 61%, or 91%).
The molecule-to-molecule transfer of heat energy as it diffuses through a substance.
Energy is transferred through gases and liquids by movements called _______, when the physical mixing involves a strong vertical motion.
In the atmosphere or bodies of water, warmer (less dense) masses tend to ______ (rise / sink).
Like convection, but a lateral (horizontal) motion is dominant.
While traveling back to space, some infrared radiation is absorbed by carbon dioxide, water vapor,methane, CFCs, and other gasses in the lower atmosphere and is then reradiated to Earth, thus delaying heat loss to space. This heat-trapping process is called the _________ ________.
DTR = ________ temperature range: the difference between daily maximum and minimum temperatures.
true / false: the Earth-atmosphere energy system naturally balances in a steady-state equilibrium.
The principal heat source at Earth's surface.
The warmest timeof day occurs NOT at the moment of maximum insolation, but at that moment when a maximum of insolation is ________.
boundary layer climate
The general term for the climate at or near the Earth's surface.
the study of the portion of the atmosphere that is at or near Earth's surface (the boundary layer climate).
NET R: the net radiation (of all wavelengths) available at Earth's surface.
Heat we can feel.
A form of energy that flows from one system or object to another because the two are at different temperatures.
A measure of the average kinetic energy (motion) of individual molecules in matter.
Zero on this temperature scale corresponds to absolute zero, at which all molecular motion in matter completely stops (Fahrenheit, Celsius, or Kelvin).
Insolation is the single most important influence on temperature, and insolation is determined above all by _________.
As altitude increases, temperature ________ (increases, decreases).
At higher altitudes, the atmosphere is more _______ (thin, dense), so it is less able to absorb and radiate heat.
Though the effects vary based on cloud type, height, and density, cloud cover has a great effect on __________.
Compared to the temperature patterns of water bodies, inland temperatures are much more _________ (moderate, extreme).
Heat energy that is absorbed when water changes to water vapor and stored in the water vapor.
Light can penetrate the surface of water because water is ___________.
The amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of a substance.
Because a unit of water can hold more heat than an equal amount of land, it is takes ______ (less, more) time to change water temperatures than it does to change land temperatures.
the Gulf Stream
Moves northward off the east coast of North America, carrying warm water far into the North Atlantic.
Used to describe locations that exhibit the moderating influences of the ocean, usually along coastlines or on islands (aka maritime effects).
The condition of areas that are less affected by the sea and therefore have greater diurnal and seasonal temperature changes (aka continentality).
The lines on temperature maps; connects points of equal temperature.
A line connecting all points of highest mean temperature.
true / false: In the Southern Hemisphere, July and August are the hottest, most summery months.
urban heat island
The concept that on average, both maximum and minimum temperatures are higher in urban areas than in nearby rural settings.
A dome of airborne pollution around major cities.