The conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in sugars or other organic compounds; occurs in plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes.
An organism that obtains organic food molecules wihout eating other organisms or substances derived from other organisms. Use energy from the sun or from oxidation of inorganic substances to create organic molecules.
An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or substances derived from them.
A green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants and algae and in the membranes of certain prokaryotes.
The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis
The dense fluid of the chloroplasts surrounding the thylakoid membrane. Involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
A flattened membranous sac inside a chloroplast. Exist in an interconnected system and contain necessary molecules to convert light to chemical energy.
The first of two major stages in photosynthesis. These occur on the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts or on membranes of certain prokaryotes convert solar energy to chemical energy in ATP and NADPH, releasing oxygen as a byproduct.
Fixation of atmospheric CO2 and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate
An electron accepted that temporarily stores electrons produced during the light reactions when a hydrogen is added to its name.
The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton motive force generated across the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast or the membrane of certain prokaryotes during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
The initial incorporation of carbon from CO2 into an organic compound by an autotrophic organism
The distance between crests of waves such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The entire spectrum of electromagnetic radiation ranging in wavelength from less than a nanometer to more than a kilometer.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be detected as various colors by the human eye from about 380 nm to 750 nm.
A discrete quantity of light energy that behaves as if it were a particle.
An instrument that measure the proportions of light of different wavelengths absorbed and transmitted by a pigment solution
The range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelengths of light and graphs of such a range
A photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions, converting solar energy to chemical energy.
A graph that profiles the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation in driving a particular process.
An accessory pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll a.
A yellow or orange accessory pigment that broadens the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis.
A light capturing unit located in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplasts or prokaryotic membranes that consists of a reaction center complex surrounded by light harvesting complexes.
A complex of proteins associated with a special pair of chlorophyll a molecules and a primary electron acceptor. Located centrally in a photosystem, this complex triggers the light reactions of photosynthesis. Excited by light energy, the pair of chlorophylls donates an electron to the primary electron acceptor, which passes an electron to an electron transport chain.
A complex of proteins associated with pigment molecules that captures light energy and sends it to reaction center pigments in photosystems.
Primary Electron Acceptor
In the thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast or prokaryotic membranes, a specialized molecule that shares the reaction center complex with a pair of chlorophyll a molecules and that accepts an electron from them.
One of two light capturing units that has two molecules of P680 chlorophyll a as the reaction center.
A light capturing unit that has two molecules of P700 chlorophyll a as the reaction center
Linear Electron Flow
A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves both photosystems and produces ATP, NADPH, and O2 with net electron flow from water to NADP+.
Cyclic Electron Flow
A route of electron flow that produces ATP but not NADPH nor O2 and only involves photosystem I.
A three carbon carbohydrate that is the direct product of the Calvin cycle and an intermediate in glycolysis.
The enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the calvin cycle: the fixation of CO2 to RuBP
Plants that use the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three carbon compound as the first stable intermediate
A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen and ATP, releases carbon dioxide and decreases photosynthetic output. Occurs on hot dry bright days when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of CO2.
A plant in which the Calvin Cycle is preceded by reactions that incorporate CO2 into a four carbon compound, the end product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin Cycle.
Bundle Sheath Cell
A type of photosynthetic cell in C4 plants arranged into tightly packed sheathes around the veins of leaves
A type of loosely arranged photosynthetic cell located between the bundle sheath and the leaf surface
An enzyme that adds CO2 to PEP to form OAA in C4 plants to act prior to photosynthesis.
Crassulacean acid metabolism
An adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions. In this process, a plant takes up CO2 and incorporates it into organic acids at night; during the day, CO2 is released from organic acids for use in the Calvin Cycle.
A plant that utilizes Crassulacean acid metabolism