music appreciation

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key terms from the first 9 chapters of Norton's "The Enjoyment of Music"

melody

Line or tune in music

contour

How the melody moves up or down

range

A melody's span of pitches

interval

Span between two pitches in a melody

conjunct melody

Moves in small, connected intervals

disjunct melody

Moves in large, leaping intervals

phrases

Units that make up a melody

cadences

Small resting period at the end of a phrase

countermelody

Secondary, accompanying melody

rhythm

Moves music forward in time

Meter

Marked off in MEASURES, organizes the BEATS, often starts with a DOWNBEAT

Simple meters

Duple, triple, quadruple

Compound meters

Subdivide each beat into three, rather than two, subbeats

Rhythmic complexities

Upbeats, offbeats, syncopation, polyrhythm

Additive meters

Used in some world musics

Nonmetric

Obscured pulse

Harmony

Describes simultaneous events in music

Chord

Simultaneous sounding of three or more pitches

Scale

Sequence of pitches, makes up a chord

Triad chord

Most common chord in Western music

Major/minor scales

Harmony is derived from them

Tonic

Central tone around which a melody is built, this principle is called tonality

Dissonance

Unstable or discordant harmony

Consonance

Occurs with the resolution of dissonance

Drone

Single sustained tone

Texture

interweaving of the melodic lines with harmony in music.

Monophony

single-voiced music without accompaniment.

Heterophony

multiple voices elaborating the same melody at the same time.

Polyphony

many-voiced texture based on counterpoint—one line set against another.

Homophony

occurs when one melodic voice is prominent over the accompanying lines, or voices

Homorhythmic Texture

subcategory of homophony in which all the voices move in the same rhythm.

Imitation

when a melodic idea is presented in one voice, then restated in another (canons, rounds)

Form

organizing principle in music; its basic elements are repetition, contrast, and variation.

Strophic form

common in songs, features repeated music for each stanza of text.

Binary form

A-B

Ternary form

A-B-A

Theme

a melodic idea used as a building block in a large-scale work and can be broken into small, component fragments known as motives.

Sequence

results when a motive is repeated at a different pitch

Responsorial music

a repetitive style involving a soloist and a group.

Ostinato

the repetition of a short musical melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern.

Movements

Large-scale compositions, such as symphonies and sonatas, are divided into sections, or movements.

Tempo

rate of speed, or pace, of the music.

Tempo terms

llegro (fast), moderato (moderate), adagio (quite slow), accelerando (speeding up the pace), and ritardando (slowing the pace).

Metronome

device that indicates the tempo, or beats per minute, by sounding a pulse.

Dynamics

describe the volume, or how loud or soft the music is played; Italian dynamic terms include forte (loud) and piano (soft).

Timbre

tone color

Instrument

generates vibrations and transmits them into the air.

Types of human voice

soprano and alto for female voices, and tenor and bass for male voices.

Instrument classification

aerophones (such as flutes or horns), chordophones (such as violins or guitars), idiophones (such as bells or cymbals) and membranophones (drums).

Four families of instruments

strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion.

Stringed instruments

violin, viola, cello, and double bass; plucked strings include harp and guitar.

Woodwind instruments

flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, and saxophone.

Brass instruments

trumpet, French horn, trombone, and tuba.

Percussion instruments

idiophones (xylophone, cymbals, triangle) and membranophones (timpani, bass drum); some instruments are pitched (chimes) while others are unpitched (tambourine).

Keyboard instruments

piano and organ, do not fit neatly into the Western classification system.

a cappella singing

no accompaniment.

Chamber music

nsemble music for small groups, with one player per part.

Standard chamber ensembles

include string quartets as well as woodwind quintets and brass quintets.

Orchestra

features eighty to one hundred players.

Conductor

beats patterns with a baton to help the performers keep the same tempo.

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