PsychHB - Ch. 01 - What Is Psychology?

37 terms by wpdoyle 

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psychology

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

behavior

observable and measurable actions of people and animals

cognitive activity

private, unobservable mental processes such as sensation, perception, thought, and problem solving

theory

a set of assumptions about why something is the way it is and happens the way it does

basic research

research that is conducted for its own sake, without seeking a solution to a specific problem

introspection

an examination of one's own thoughts and feelings

structuralism

the school of psychology, founded by Wilhelm Wundt, that maintains that conscious experience breaks down into objective sensations and subjective feelings

functionalism

the school of psychology, founded by William James, that emphasizes the purposes of behavior and mental processes

behaviorism

the school of psychology, founded by John B. Watson, that defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior

Gestalt psychology

the school of psychology that emphasizes the tendency to organize perceptions into meaningful wholes

psychoanalysis

the school of psychology, founded by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and conflicts as determinants of human behavior

biological perspective

the psychological perspective that emphasizes the influence of biology on behavior

cognitive perspective

the point of view that emphasizes the role of thought processes in determining behavior

humanistic perspective

the psychological view that assumes the existence of the self and emphasizes the importance of self-awareness and the freedom to make choices

psychoanalytic perspective

the perspective that emphasizes the influence of unconscious forces in behavior

learning perspective

the psychological point of view that emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior

social-learning perspective

the theory that suggests that people have the ability to change their environments or create new ones

sociocultural perspective

in psychology, the perspective that focuses on the roles of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status in personality formation, behavior, and mental processes

goals of psychology

observe, describe, explain, predict, and control behavior and mental processes

clinical psychologist

a psychologist trained to deal with serious mental illness; they do psychological testing, psychotherapy, and conduct research

counseling psychologist

a psychologist who helps people with day to day types of problems

psychiatrist

a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders; can prescribe medication

school psychologist

a psychologist who helps students with problems that interfere with learning

sports psychologist

a psychologist who helps athletes improve their performance using techniques like relaxation and visualization

forensic psychologist

a psychologist who works in the legal system

consumer psychologist

a psychologist who studies the behavior of consumers

social psychologist

a psychologist who studies how people and social situations affect the individual person

developmental psychologist

a psychologist who studies how people change throughout their lives

Wilhelm Wundt

founder of structuralism

William James

founder of functionalism

Sigmund Freud

founder of psychoanalysis

John B. Watson

founder of behaviorism

B.F. Skinner

psychologist who studied the effects of rewards and punishments on behavior

Socrates

Greek philosopher who said, "Know thyself"

Hippocrates

Greek physician who said that abnormal behavior is linked to abnormalities in the brain

Aristotle

Greek philosopher who wrote Peri Psyches (About the Mind)

Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Wolfgang Köhler

the founders of Gestalt psychology

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