Refer to overt acts of aggression,excessive emotional abuse or physical abuse.
includes act of omission, failing to provide adequete physical or emotional care
Discipline or punish the other
Common couple violence
mutual violence with a specific argument.
Egalitarian norm (of marital power)
The resources that each brings to the relationship do not affect each persons power
Emotional child abuse or neglect
involves a parents often being overly harsh and critical, failing to provide guidence or being uninterested in a a childs needs
Both partners should share equally in the rights and responsibilities of the relationship.
The rewards and privileges of the relationship proportional to the contributions of the partners?
based on dominant person's superior judgment, knowledge, or ability
based on the persuasive content of what the dominant person tells another individual
Intimate partner violence
violence committed by spouses, ex-spouses, or current or former boyfriends or girlfriends, including same-sex partners
Power given to someone by an institution
Near Peer Marriage
Influenced by arrival of children and maximizing income
Patriarchal norm (of marital power)
If traditional norms of male authority are strong,husbands will almost inevitably dominate regardless of personal resources.
controlling the partner through fear and intimidation
60/40 split powers
May be defined as the ability to exercise one's will.
based on the less dominant person's emotional identification with the more dominant individual
Holds that the spouse with more resources has more power in marriage.
Give gifts, favors, supports, material things, emotional support
a childs being forced, tricked or coerced into sexual behavior.
sibilings fighting each other
Husband dominated, but the wife is okay with it.
Transitional Egalitarian Situation
Regarding martial power, typical of the rest of the country, in which "husband-wife relationships are more flexible and negotiated.
a behavior that is provocative and that challenges the spouse's power and authority.
characterized by the intent to insult or abuse your partner emotionally
attacking personality rather than the specific behavior
defending yourself from a perceived attack will escalate an argument
a person directs anger at the people or things that the other cherishes.
Female-demand/male-withdraw communication pattern
Women will usually appear to be confrontational and want/demand to "talk" about things. They are socialized to be attuned to the emotional quality of relationship.
Men will usually try to minimize conflict and may withdraw from their partner.
Four Horseman of the Apocalypse
Conquest, Death, War and Famine
when a person expresses anger at someone but does so indirectly rather than directly ie, chronic criticism, nagging, sarcasm, forms of sabotage.
speaking to gain or reinforce rapport or intimacy
conversation aimed mainly at conveying information.
one partner attempts to spoil or undermine some activity the other has planned.
a person refuses to listen to their partner's complaints or stories (physically and emotionally)
Defensively shutting off the willingness or ability to make future attachments.
The technical term used in social science for reproductive capacity. Infecundity or sterility: physical inability to have children
Used by demographics to refer to actual birth
Describes the situation of a woman or a couple who has a physical barrier to pregnancy or who has not been able to carry a pregnancy to full term.
Is the condition of wanting to concieve and bear a child but being physically unable to do so
The children are taken into a parents home but the adoption is not legally formalized. Most common in alska natives,blacks, and hispanics
The economic oppurtunities for wage earnings and investments that parents for go when rearing children
Having children is taken for granted where as not having children must be justified
Social capital perspective
Parenthood intensifies interactions with and assistance from other family members.
Our values,laws,employment policies and culture are inimical to children and disastrous to commited parents
Value of children
The idea that children bring unique benefits to parents .
Barriers to divorce
Function to keep marriages intact even when attractiveness of the marital relationship is low and the attractivness of alternatives to the relationshipis high
refers to ruptures of relationships and changes in social networks that come about as a result of divorce.
Crude divorce rate
number of divorces per year counted per 1000 people
in which they become distinct economic units, each with its own property,income,contorl of expenditures, and responsibilty for taxes,debts,and so on.
Economic hardship perspective
Assumes that economic hardship brought about by marital dissolution is primarily responsible for the problems faced by children whose parents divorced.
Involves withholding positive emotions and communication from the relationship,typically replacing these with alienating actions and communications
Family instability perspective
is an additional theory of children's negative outcomes of divorce that has emerged since Amato's original article.
Stresses that transitions in and out of various family settings are the key to childrens adjustment
Intergenerational transmission of divorce
Divorcing parents are models of divorce as a solution to marital problems or (2) children of divorced parents are more likely to exhibit personal behaviors that interfer with maintaining a happy marriage.
Interparental conflict perspective
hold that conflict between parents is responsible for the lowered well-being of children of divorce
Is the disolution of the marriage by the state through a court order terminating the marriage.
Life stress perspective
Assumes that just as divorce is known to be a stressful life event for adults it must also be so for children
Parental adjustment perspective
Notes the importance of the custodial parents psychological adjustment and the equality of parenting
Parental loss perspective
Assumes that a family with both parents living in the same household is the optimal enviroment for childrens developement.
refers to the regaining of psychological autonomy through emotional seperation from the personality and influence of the former spouse.
Refined divorce rate
Best and accurate way-number of divorced rates per married women 15-older
--A new family type that includes members of the two families that existed before the divorce and remarriage.
--a social unit composed of an extended family, usually the children and subsequent spouses of divorced parents.
Shared decision making and parental supervision in such areas as discipline and schoolwork or shared holidays and recreation.
Take place through licensed agencies that place children in adoptive families
Do not involve a formal agency and are arranged directly between adoptive parents and the biological birth mother,usually through an attorney
The adoptive and biological families have no communication and do not know one another's identities
Involves some direct contact between the biological and adoptive parents ranging from one meeting before the child is born to life long friendship
Men tend to have more resources
Money *Men tend to have more resources
alternatives to marriage
Resources and Gender
*Women tend to be most equal with men at the beginning of marriage.
*First pregnancy and birth diminishes women's resources.
-Female may take time off and lose income.
-Dependent on males to be father and earner.
-Have less energy to resist dominance of husband.
Legitimacy and Resources
--Culture gives power + husband greater resources = husband dominant
--Culture gives power + husband less resources = husband dominant
-Culture does not give power + husband greater resources = husband probably dominant
--Culture does not give power + husband less resources = egalitarian marriage or wife-dominant
Four Couple Types
*Heterosexual married, Heterosexual cohabiting, Lesbian, and Gay
*Married and cohabiting heterosexuals least egalitarian.
*Gay and Lesbian share domestic duties more (including child-rearing).
*Gays more competitive; Lesbians more relationally focused
Three-phase Cycle of Violence
*Tension resulting from some minor altercation builds over a period of time.
*Situation escalates, exploding into another violence episode.
*Violent person becomes contrite, treating his/her spouse or partner lovingly (honeymoon).
*The processing of exchanging and interpreting ideas and feelings.
*A symbolic transactional process that involves creating and sharing meaning.
Transactional and process: giving and receiving
Elements of Communication
The person who creates and sends the message.
The message is the unit of information transmitted between sender and receiver
The recipient is the receiver of the message.
Problem Solving: Step 1
*First stage of problem solving should be determining whether or not the problem is solvable!
-Solvable- problems that have solutions.
-Perpetual-problems within a relationship that can never be solved
Problem Solving: Step 2
*The second stage of the problem solving process is problem discussion.
-In this stage the problem is clarified...is it really about something deeper?
Problem Solving: Step 3
*This is the last stage, which should only occur after successful problem discussion.
*This stage involves confronting obstacles, exploring alternatives, and considering resources.
The decesion to have kids
Waiting before having kids is not the samething as thinking in an organized fashion about having children
How to have children
-The good old fashion way
Spouses weigh their marital happiness against alternatives to the marriage as well as barriers to divorce
Communication Danger signs
marriage in which at least one partner had previously been divorced or widowed
*Today remarriages make up approximately half of all marriages (46%)
*The majority of remarriages are second marriages
*75% of divorced women remarry within 10 years, 83%, after 15 years.
*The average divorced person who remarries does so within four years after divorce; 30% do so within one year.
The Second Time Around: How Is It Different?
The mean age of remarriage was 34.2 for previously divorced women and 37.8 for previously divorced men, 10 years older than for first marriages.
Differences (cont.) -Homogamy
Homogamy does not play a central role in finding a mate, as it did with the first marriage. Older people, particularly those widowed, may be likely to marry homogomously, but this rule does not apply to middle-aged or younger people.
Factors That Influence the Odds of Remarriage
Children: lower the likelihood or remarriage for both men and women, but the impact of children is great on women's probability of remarriage.
Feelings That Children Experience in Stepfamilies
Sense of uncertainty about their future
Child may be hesitant to form a close relationship with stepparent out of fear of replacing or being "disloyal" to the other parent. (b) the other parent may induce guilt by implying disloyalty if the child develops a relationship with the stepparent out of anger for the ex-spouse
The child may feel that the new stepparent is taking away the love and attention once received from their parent
The child may feel that (s)he is in competition with stepsiblings or ½ siblings for the parents love and attention. They may feel that one sibling is preferred over the other.
The child may feel angry with the parent for "inviting" another person to share their space and emotional relationship.
The child may feel sad about seeing his or her parent with someone other than the ex-spouse. This terminally signifies that the possibility of the reunification of biological parents is not longer possible.
Sense of uncertainty about their future
The child may feel unsure of this arrangement and wonder how long it will last.
Papernow's 7 stage model
for stepfamily development
Stage 1: Fantasy
Adults expect a smooth and quick adjustment while children expect that the stepparent will disappear and their parents will be reunited.
Stage 2: Immersion
Tension producing conflict emerges between the stepfamily's two biological "subunits".
Stage 3: Awareness
Family members realize that their early fantasies are not becoming reality.
Stage 4: Mobilization
Family members initiate efforts toward change.
Stage 5: Action
Remarried adults decide to form a solid alliance, family boundaries are better clarified, and there are more positive stepparent-stepchild interaction.
Stage 6: Contact
The stepparent become a significant adult family figure, and the couple assumes more control.
Stage 7: Resolution
The stepfamily achieves integration and appreciates its unique identity as a stepfamily.
-The medium is the way a message is presented to the recipient.
-Talking, television, text message, note, e-mail, fax, etc.
-Message is often determined, to a degree, by the medium.