AL - Chapter 12 The necessities of life

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cells of living organisms are what % water?

70%

Most chemical reactions involved in metabolism need what?

water

Humans cannot live more than how long without water?

72 - 94 hours

What gas in the air do humans need to process energy?

oxygen

What gas in the air do plants need?

carbon dioxide

habitat

a place that contains all of the things an organism needs to survive.

What is a producer?

an organism that can make it's own food by using energy from their surroundings. (Photosynthesis)

What is a consumer?

an organism that must eat other organisms to get food.

What is a decomposer?

an organism that gets its food by breaking down the nutrients in dead organisms or animal wastes.

Proteins

large molecules made up of amino acids

Molecules found in living things are made up of what elements?

carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus

How do organisms make proteins?

by breaking down the proteins in foods to supply their cells with amino acids that are then linked together to form new proteins.

enzymes

proteins that start or speed up chemical reactions in cells

carbohydrates

molecules made of sugars; what cells use to store energy

simple carbohydrates

made of one sugar molecule or a few sugar molecules linked together which makes them quick to absorb.

Complex carbohydrates

hundreds of sugar molecules linked together.

How do organisms store extra sugar?

as complex carbohydrates. These take more time to break down, so they give energy over a longer period of time.

lipids

compounds that cannot mix with water.

phospholipids

the molecules that form much of the cell membrane

fats and oils

lipids that store energy and make up cell membranes.

When an organism has used up most of its carbohydrates, what does it get energy from?

fats and oils (lipids that store energy)

ATP

adenosine triphosphate

What is ATP?

the major energy-carrying molecules in cells

provides fuel for cellular activities:

the energy in carbohydrates and lipids must first be transferred to ATP

Nucleotides

a sub unit that makes up nucleic acid

nucleic acid

the "blueprint" of life - contains all the information needed for a cell to make proteins.

What is DNA?

a nucleic acid

what do organisms need for cellular processes?

water

what do organisms need to release the energy contained in their food?

oxygen

nutrients are mode up of?

molecules that are broken down for use in the organisms life processes.

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