What were some of the unintended consequences of off-street parking?
- repetitive curb cuts which can destroy the quality of streets
- paving for driveways
- monotonous garage doors
In natural areas parking should be
primarily surface lots, ideally located to cause minimal environmental damage
In neighborhoods with largely single-family detached housing, what is the best panning and design device to improve the quality of the public realm?
the alley or rear lane
They typically reduce the amount of paving required per block by replacing and consolidating paving that would have been dedicated to driveways.
Alleys reduce curb cuts leaving more space for what?
Parallel parking can serve..
a large percentage of a neighborhoods parking load and provide a safety barrier between moving vehicles and peds.
Surface lots often destroy the sense of
enclosure within the public realm.
This disallows civic rooms through a lack of spatial definition.
It is suggested that surface lots be separated from primary frontages by
Liner buildings such as rows of townhouses and be screened from secondary frontages when such buildings are not feasible.
ULI and Center for TOD found that TODs produce
half as many vehicular trips as conventional development
TCRP Report 128
One problem with commercial parking is that the overall parking requirement is tied to..
Annual peak demands (day after Thanksgiving for retail)
How much excess parking do retailers generally have?
Over half the parking sits empty 40% of the year!!
A single parking space requires how much land?
300 sq' including the portion of drive aisle necessary for access.
Under conventional assumptions how much of a lot is required for parking?
Over half the lot must be dedicated to the parking lot.
What is a Texas Donut
An unadorned parking deck bordered on two sides by a 10-15' zone for open ventilation, and wrapped on all four sides by 35-40' deep four story wood-frame liner buildings.
Donuts the size of 220x246' have been created but economic efficiencies are gained when the blocks are roughly twice that size (220x380)
To create a pleasant pedestrian realm within commercial environments, the ideal solution is
to bury the parking underground.
Why do new ped-oriented districts of entirely commercial space pose design challenges?
This is because office and retail require much more parking per sq ft than residential.
Parking is more efficient (vertically or horizontally)?
For every two stories of office over retail built to standard market heights, a developer can build four levels of a parking deck.
The inclusion of mass transit often does what to block size in a NU center?
It often increases block size
What should policy makers understand about parking?
They should understand the physical requirements and constraints of parking through the entire Transect of urbanism.
for example, in older moderate-density areas, the land area required to meet parking reqs 'on-site' is often greater than land owners possess. In smaller towns these parking requirements are often the single greatest obstacle to revitalization.
The three most prevalent mistakes in parking policy are:
1. Requirements for excess off-street parking
2. Bundling of parking costs within office and residential rents/sales and , for those places that have on-street parking
3. Keeping on-street parking free or cheaper than off street parking
A number of cities have recently eliminated parking minimums and in some cases replaced them with
Cities incluee LA, San Fran, Milwaukee & Portland. The entire nation of Great Britain has abolished parking minimums.
Cities with the best parking practices typically..
vary parking management practices across the Transect.
Parking management in a city should be designed with attention to..
what is happening in all of the blocks nearby.
A large mistakes that many communities make is to price on-street meters...
more cheaply than off-street parking options.
A good rule of thumb for the optimal pricing of on-street parking is to set the price so that..
one out of every nine spaces is always available.
Minimum parking reqs are govt regs that are designed to ensure that cities have more parking than..
if the matter were left up to the free market.
One of the first books to promote parking requirements was the 1946 book..
Parking, by Wilbur S. Smith & Charles S. LeCraw of Yale University's Eno Foundation of Traffic Control
Hawley Simpson predicted the problems that later arose from off-street parking. He said:
Rather than assisting in solving the street traffic problem, it may very probably have the opposite effect by inducing a large amount of unnecessary vehicle usage. Free storage is an economic fallacy."
Dozens of studies have shown that when parking is free...
people drive more.
When employees must pay for parking, the rate at which they drive to work drops by..
27%, all else being equal.
By reducing the price of parking spaces, minimum parking requirements have...
induced higher vehicle ownership and vehicle travel thus making air pollution and traffic congestion worse.
Parking determines _____
Developers are often limited in the number of units that can be placed on a site by parking demands and reqs.
Historically, urban lots have been sized in 25' increments. The 'Lexicon' recommends..
This is the most efficient system since an on-street space requires at least 18 feet of frontage and an off-street space requires at least 9' of frontage.
The justification for calibrating parking to the Transect is that people walk and use transit more, and drive less in the urban cores and centers. They should not be required to..
pay for parking that they do not need.
The SmartCode excludes retail spaces under ___ sq ft from any parking requirements
This encourages smaller independent shops that contribute to urban vitality.
For each parking space required...
The cost of a residential unit rises by 15-30% and the # of units that can be built on a site goes down by 15-25%.
Commercial parking spaces cost..
~$20k each in land, materials & construction. That cost is passed on to the all consumers whether they drive or not.
If more than 3 parking spaces are required per sq ft, you are mandating...
more parking area than building area.
Every parking space is a magnet for..
cars. Thereby increasing congestion, which in turn raises road maintenance and construction costs.
Donad Shoup, an urban planning professor at UCLA, contends in his book 'The High Cost of Free Parking' that:
"parking requirements cause great harm: they subsidize cars, distort transportation choices, warp urban form, increase housing costs, burden low income Hhs, debase urban design, damage the economy, and degrade the environment."
Those who don't drive nontheless...
subsidize the parkers, through higher prices that are charged to everyone for goods and services.
Parking requirements create especially severe problems in...
older commercial areas, where it is often impossible to erect new buildings at traditional densities while satisfying parking ratio requirements.
San Francisco estimates that parking requirements add...
20 percent to the cost of each affordable housing unit and reduce the number of units that can be built on a site.
Seven characteristics of well designed alleys and lanes are:
- Pavement that is not too wide (12 feet with 4 feet of gravel on each side is good)
- Accessory Units over Garages (most important ones are at access points)
- Garages, often with accessory units, strategically placed at the ends of alley
- Jogs in the pavement
- Informal plantings
- Pairs of single garage doors
- A basketball hoop
Parking courts are
small parking lots designed as courtyards and with enough spaces to serve an entire block.