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Antibiotic

A substance derived from a microbe that will inhibit or destroy another microbe.

65% of antibiotics are derived from:

Streptomyces

Sulfanomides

Sulfur drugs

Sulfur drugs treat...

UTIs

Salvarsan treats...

Syphilis

Where do most antibiotic-producing microbes come from?

The soil

Selective Toxicity

The ability of a drug to attack a pathogen and not the tissues.

A therapeutic dose should be....

...a low but effective dose.

The toxic dose of an antibiotic should be...

...high enough to avoid damaging the patient.

Chemotherapeutic dose equals...

The toxic dose divided by the therapeutic dose.

A chemotherpeutic dose should be...

...high with few side effects.

Toxicity is measured (blank).

Side effects are the measurement for (blank).

Tetracycline targets...

Many pathogens.

Cidal antimicrobial

Kills a pathogen

Static antimicrobial

Prevents multiplication or growth in a pathogen.

Inhibition of cell wall synthesis has...

...a high chemotherapeutic index.

Influencing factors on effectiveness of an antimicrobial drug.

-Pathogen must be suseptible to drug.
-Drug must be able to reach site of infection
-Drug must be able to reach infection at the correct concentration.

Effectiveness of a drug depends on...

-Dose
-Route
-Rate of Elimination

A synthetic antibacterial drug that targets metabolic pathways and is composed of sulfur.

Sulfonamides

An antibiotic or semi-synthetic antimicrobial that acts on mostly Gram + microbes.

Penicillins

An antibiotic that inhibits cell wall synthesis and can be used in place of penicillin.

Cephalosporins

A very toxic drug that inhibits RBC production. Only used in extreme situations.

Chloramphenicaol.

A 4-ringed structured drug.

Tetracycline

A macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomycin.

Erythromycin

A drug that inhibits cell wall synthesis, is used against resistant strains as a "last resort".

Vancomycin

Three antimicrobials in neosporin.

-neomycin
-bacitracin
-polymycin

VRSA

Vancomycin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

MRSA

Multi-drug Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

What drug is gonorrhea now resistant to?

Penicillin

(blank) is damaged in penicillin to inactivate it.

The beta-lactam nucleus ring structure

Acquisition of a new R plasmid

The most common way for a microbe to develop resistance.

An anti-fungal developed from streptomycin to fight yeast infections

Nystatin

An anti-fungal developed from penicillin to fight Athlete's foot.

Griseofulvin

A powerful anti-fungal developed from streptomycin that fights systemic fungal infections

Amphotericin B

The hardest microbe pathogen to target.

A virus.

Amantadine

A drug that blocks the attachment of a virus, commonly used against the flu.

Acyclivor

A drug that inhibits viral nucleic acid synthesis. Used against the herpes virus.

AZT

Used against HIV. Blocks reverse transcriptase.

The species classified by letter (A-O) depending on a carbohydrate present in the cell wall.

Streptococcus

Two complications of Strep Throat

-Scarlet Fever
-Rheumatic Fever

Bacteria infection and multiplication in the blood.

Septicemia

The causative agent of Diptheria

Corynebacterium diptheriae

The causative agent of Pertussis (Whooping Cough).

Bordatella pertussis

A causative agent of Meningococcal Meningitis

Neisseria meningitidis

Another causative agent of Meningitis

Haemophilus influenzae B

A stage of TB when the bacteria enters the blood after latent period.

Miliary TB

An old name for Tuberculosis

Consumption.

DOTS

Direct Observation and Treatment System

A test for exposure to TB.

Mantoux Text

80% of bacterial pneumonias are caused by this agent.

Streptococcal pneumoniae

The causative agent of Primary Atypical Pneumonia (Walking Pneumonia)

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Mycoplasma penumoniae appear as a (blank)-shaped colony on agar.

"Fried Egg"

Intoxication

Diseases in which bacterial toxins are injested and cause disease.

Infection

Diseases in which actual bacteria are injested and cause disease.

Infection incubation depends on these three aspects.

-Virulence of pathogen
-Type of bacteria
-Dose/Amount

The type of toxin that acts on the GI tract.

Enterotoxin

Food poisoning is normally caused by this agent.

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus Food Poisoning is an (blank).

Intoxication.

The causative agent of Botulism.

Clostridium botulinum

The type of toxin produced by C. botulinum

Neurotoxin.

The botulisum toxin attacks what neurotransmitter?

Acetylcholine, leading to no muscle contraction.

70% of botulisim intoxications are in the (blank) population.

Infant

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