WC Ch.7 Mexico Today

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World Cultures Chapter 7 Mexico Today along with the South American countries for your geography quiz

peninsular

a person who was born in Spain but who lived in Mexico after the Spanish took control.

Criollo

a person born in Mexico whose parents were born in Spain.

mestizo

a person of mixed European and Native American ancestry.

encomienda

a system that the rulers of Spain established Mexico, under which Spanish men received a Native American village to oversee and gain tribute from.

Father Miguel Hidalgo

supported poor mestizos, Native Americans, and slaves which made criollos turn against him, tried to liberate Mexico but was executed.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

a treaty that the United States forced Mexico to sign in 1848, giving Mexico's northern lands to the United States.

Gadsden Purchase

the 1853 purchase by the United States of a piece of land from northern Mexico.

Benito Juarez

Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico

Francisco Madero

early leader in the Mexican Revolution; in 1911 became president of Mexico; wanted land ownership and free, honest elections, two years later he was murdered, led to power struggles

hacienda

in Spanish-speaking countries, a big farm or ranch.

Emiliano Zapata

Revolutionary and leader of peasants in the Mexican Revolution. He mobilized landless peasants in south-central Mexico in an attempt to seize and divide the lands of the wealthy landowners. Though successful for a time, he was ultimately defeated and assassinated.

ejido

in Mexico, a community farm owned by the people of a village together.

Institutional Revolutionary Party

the most powerful political party in Mexico from the 1920s to 2000, which won every presidential election during that time.

Vicente Fox

Mexican president elected in 2000; of the PAN party; ended the 70-year rule of the PRI; gave possibilities to Mexico

Carlos Salinas de Gortari

Mexican president in 1991; ended the ejido system; farmers could vote to divide their ejido into single farms; privatized farming

privatization

the process of replacing community ownership with individual, or private, ownership.

distribution

the process of moving products to their markets.

maquiladora

in Mexico, a factory that imports duty-free parts from the United States to make products that it then exports back across the border.

nationalize

to establish government control of a service or industry.

PEMEX

Mexican Petroleum, a government agency that runs the oil industry in Mexico.

tourism

the business of helping people travel on vacations.

Diego Rivera

One of Mexico's most celebrated 20th century artists. He painted a series of historical murals in the National Palace in Mexico City.

Frida Kahlo

Mexican painter; international popularity with self-portraits; was married to Diego Rivera; influenced by Rivera.

Octavio Paz

was a Mexican writer, poet, and diplomat, and the winner of the 1990 Nobel Prize for Literature.

rural

of the countryside.

urban

of the city.

Day of the Dead

a Mexican holiday, on November 1 and 2, for honoring loved ones who have died.

fiesta

a holiday celebrated by a village or town, with events such as parades, games, and feasts.

French Guiana

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