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pituitary gland (hypophysis)

A small oval endocrine gland attached to the base of the vertebrate brain and consisting of an anterior and a posterior lobe, the secretions of which control the other endocrine glands and influence growth, metabolism, and maturation.

(Adenohypophysis) anterior lobe of pituitary gland

consists of three regions that produce several hormones

posterior lobe of pituitary gland

contains the axons of hypothalamic neurons. stores and releases OT (oxytocin) and ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

Diabetes Insipidus

A disorder that develops when the neurohypohysis no longer releases adequate amounts of ADH, or when the kidneys cannot respond to ADH.

Diabetes mellitus

A disorder that damages many organ systems. Characaterized by blood glucose concentrations high enoughto overwhelm the kidney's reabsorption capabilities.

Posterior: Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

Stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water, elevation of blood volume pressure. Target: Kidneys

Posterior: Oxytocin (OXT)

Stimulates contractions of uterus during childbirth; releases milk in nursing mothers. Contractions of ductus deferens and prostate gland.

Anterior: Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Stimulates production of mature eggs and sperm.

Anterior: Lutenizing Hormone (LH)

Stimulates ovaries and testes; prepares uterus for implantation of fertilized egg.

Anterior: Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

secretion of thyroid hormones

Anterior: Adreno-Corticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

Secretion of glucocorticoids (cortisol, corticosterone)

Anterior: Growth Hormone (GH)

Growth, protein synthesis, llipid mobilization and catabolism.

Anterior lobe: Prolactin (PRL)

Stimulates milk production in nursing mothers.

Anterior lobe: Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH)

Stimulates the melanocytes of the skin, increasing their production of the skin pigment melanin.

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