Foreign Policy and National Security

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Diplomacy

is the conduct of international relations, particularly involving the negotiation of treaties and other agreements between nations.

foreign service officers

the diplomatic and consular staff at U.S. embassies abroad.

globalism

the interconnectedness between nations in contemporary times.

al-Qaeda

a radical international Islamic fundamentalist terror organization.

weapons of mass destruction (WMDs)

nuclear, chemical and biological weapons

regime change

the replacement of a country's government with another government by facilitating the deposing of its leader or leading political party

president of the U.S.

is the foremost foreign policy actor in the world

C.I.A.

agency responsible for collecting, analyzing, evaluating, and disseminating foreign intelligence to the president and senior national policy makers.

War Powers Act

1973 law that limits presidential use of military forces to sixty days, with an automatic extension of thirty additional days if the president requests such an extension

Isolationism

a foreign policy characterized by a nation's unwillingness to participate in international affairs.

Interventionism

a foreign policy characterized by a nation's willingness to participate and intervene in international situations, including another country's affairs.

Monroe Doctrine

President's James Monroe's 1823 declaration that the Americas should not be considered subjects for future colonization by any European power.

Manifest Destiny

the idea that it was the United States' destiny to spread throughout the North American continent; used to rationalize the expansion of U.S. territory

...

How did Theodore Roosevelt pay to send the U.S. Navy around the world to show off U.S. naval power?

Theodore Roosevelt

was the President of the United States during World War I.

League of Nations

a representative body founded in the aftermath of World War I to establish the collective security of nations.

Collective Defense

is the concept that allied nations agree to defend one another in the face of an invasion.

Collective Security

the idea that peace could be achieved if nations agreed to collectively oppose any nation that attacked another country.

Holocaust

the genocide perpetrated by Adolph Hitler and the Nazis against six million Jews, along with political dissidents, Catholics, homosexuals, the disabled and gypsies.

Superpowers

leader nations with dominating influence in international affairs

Central Powers of WWI

Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Ottoman Empire

Axis Powers of WWII

Japan, Italy, and Germany

The Big 3 of WWII

Great Britain, Soviet Union, and the U.S

Multilateral

many sided; having the support of numerous nations

Marshall plan

The U.S. government program that provided funds necessary for Western European countries to rebuild after World War II

United Nations (UN)

established in 1945, an international body whose founders hoped would develop the capacity to prevent future wars by achieving collective security and peace.

Ban Ki-Moon

is the Secretary-General of the United Nations

David Cameron

is the Prime Minister of Great Britain

Nourimaliki

is the Prime Minister of Iraq.

Mahmud Ahmadinejad

is the President of Iran

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

an international mutual defense alliance formed in 1949 that created a structure for regional security for its fifteen member nations.

Warsaw Pact

regional security structure formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and its seven satellite states in Eastern Europe in response to the creation of NATO.

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)

regional security agreement whose goal was to prevent communist encroachment in the countries of Southeast Asia.

Cold War

the political, ideological, and military conflict that lasted from 1945 until 1990 between communist nations led by the Soviet Union and Western democracies led by the United States.

Truman Doctrine

articulated by President Harry Truman, a foreign policy commitment by the United States to assist countries' efforts to resist communism in the Cold War era. (Greece and Turkey)

Containment

Cold War era policy of preventing the spread of communism, mainly by providing military and economic aid as well as political advice to countries vulnerable to a communist takeover.

Korean War

1950-1953. The first military effort the United States engaged in to check the spread of communism occurred in 1950.

Limited War

a combatant country's self-imposed limitation on the tactics and strategy it uses, particularly its avoidance of the use of nuclear war. (Korean War)

Brinkmanship

Cold War-era policy of fooling the enemy by going to the edge (the brink), even if the party using the strategy had no intention of following through.

Cuban Missile Crisis

1962 Cuban and Soviet governments placed nuclear missiles in Cuba. Kennedy imposed a naval blockade around that island nation and warned the Soviet Union to withdraw its missiles, or else. (Nikita Khrushchev)

Domino Theory

the principle that if one nation fell to communism, other nations in its geographic vicinity would also succumb.

Vietnam took the lives of..

60,000 U.S soldiers and 3 million Vietnamese soldiers and civilians

Vietnam

the first military failure by the United States in its efforts to contain communism.

Nixon Doctrine or Vietnemization

slowly turning the Vietnam War back into the hands of the Vietnamese.

De'tente

easing of tensions between the United States and its communist rivals.

Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD)

the doctrine that if one nation attack another with nuclear weapons, the other would be capable of retaliating and would retaliate with such force as to assure mutual annihilation.

Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT talks)

discussions between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1970s that focused on cooling down the nuclear arms race between the two superpowers.

Clash Of Civilizations Thesis

Samuel Huntington's idea that bitter cultural conflict will continue and escalate between modern Western democracies and fundamentalist Islamic states.

Bush Doctrine

the argument, articulated by President George W. Bush, that unilateral action directly target at an enemy is both justifiable and feasible.

Preventive War

is the strategy of waging war on countries regarded as threatening in order to avoid future conflicts.

Iraq, Iran, and North Korea

are countries considered "axis of evil" by President George W. Bush

Franklin Roosevelt and Harry Truman

were Presidents of the U. S. during World War II.

Franklin Roosevelt

made the fateful decision to bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

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