|The musculoskeletal system consists of?||Bones, joints, bursae, muscles, tendons and ligaments. It allows for physical movement.|
|What are the deformities of the spine?|| Lordosis - abnormal inward curvature |
( swayback )
Kyphosis - abnormal outward curvature
( humpback )
Scoliosis - abnormal sideways curvature
( s - shaped )
Kyphoscoliosis - affects cardiac and pulmonary function.
|Describe deformitites of the spine.|| Etiology - congenital defects, poor posture, idiopathic, and different leg lengths.|
Treatment - PT, exercise, back braces, surgery, analgesics.
|What is another name for herniated intervertebral disc?||Slipped disc or ruptured disc. Caused by pressure on spinal nerves, resulting in pain and disability. Most common site 4th & 5th lumbar and 5th lumbar and 1st sacral.|
|Describe herniated disc.|| Men > Women|
Etiology - spinal trauma from a fall, straining, or heavy lifting.
S/S - sciatic nerve pain and parasthesias
( stinger / tingling or abnormal sensation.)
Tx - bed rest, traction, back brace, and surgical removal.
Prognosis - 1 in every 50. ( proper lifting )
|Describe osteoporosis.|| Low bone mass ( brittle bone ) |
Women 50 and older, post menopausal, small frame, caucasian or asian.
S/S - low back pain, loss of height, fractures.
Tx - prevent fractures.
|Describe osteomyelitis.|| An infection of the bone forming tissue. More common in children.|
Etiology - trauma resulting in formation of hematoma and staph infection. Prosthetic hardware, diabetics, dialysis, IV drug users high risk.
Prognosis - poor if becomes chronic.
|Describe paget's disease.|| High rate of bone turn over, resorbed and replaced to become thicker but softer. More frequent in lower torso in men over 40.|
Etiology - unknown
Tx - PT, drug therapy, pain management, surgery.
|Describe fractures ( broken bones ).||Closed simple fracture - no external wound.|
Open or compound fracture - a portion of the bone protrudes through skin.
Greenstick fracture - bone is partially bent and split, occurs most frequently in children.
Comminuted fracture - splintered into pieces and embedded in surrounding tissue.
Impacted fracture - one of the broken ends is forced into the interior of the other.
Incomplete partial fracture - stress fracture and does not include the whole bone.
|What is the etiology of fractures?|| Trauma, and is diagnosed by xrays.|
Tx - immobilization, open reduction, closed reduction.
Complications - embolus ( clot ), infection.
|Describe osteoarthritis.|| Wear and tear of the joints as we age. Most common type of arthritis. Knee and hip joints most commonly affected as well as gender.|
Tx - pain relief, injections of joint fluid, PT, hip or knee replacement. There is no known prevention or cure.
|Describe rhuematoid arthritis.||Chronic inflammatory disease affecting the synovial membranes of muscle joints.|
Characterized by spontaneous remissions and unpredictable exacerbations.
Etiology - unknown but thought to be auto-immune disease.
Tx - Reduced inflammation and pain, Preserve joint function, prevent deformity, life long treatment. Major changes in lifestyle.
|Describe Gout.|| Chronic disorder of uric acid metabolism |
( kidneys ).
S/S - excruciating pain, usually in the joints of the big toe. At one time, was a disabling disease.
|Describe sprains and strains.|| Sprains - tearing or stretching of a ligament.|
Strains - tearing or stretching of a tendon or muscle. Both healing in 2 - 4 weeks. Elevate and rest.
|What is bursitis?|| Inflammation of bursa that allows movement of tendons and muscles over boney prominences.|
( Shoulder, arm, elbow, knee )
Caused by excessive frictional force, RA, gout, and infection.
|What is tendonitis?||Inflammation of the tendon / muscle attachments to the bone. ( shoulder, rotator cuff, hip, achilles tendon, hamstring.) Caused by overuse and pain often interferes with sleep.|
|Describe carpal tunnel syndrome.|| It affects the median nerve in the wrist caused by repetitive motion. |
Tx - Rest, splint, or surgical decompression.
|Describe myasthenia gravis.||Chronic, progressive neuromuscular disease.|
More common in women 20 - 40.
Etiology - unknown
S/S - sudden drooping eyelids and double vision ( cranial nerves ), muscle weakness, late day or after exercise, respiratory muscle weakness.
Tx - symptomatic and supportive. should be taught to make the most of the energy peaks throughout the day.
|Describe systemic lupus erythematosus. ( SLE )||Chronic inflammatory connective tissue disorder. Auto immune disease that damages cells and tissues. Affects women 8x more than men.|
Etiology - unknown
S/S - butterfly rash on face, joint and muscle pain, photo sensitivity, joint deformities.
Tx - Anti-inflammatory and corticosteroids but no cure.
|Describe duchenne's muscular dystrophy.||a congenital disorder characterized by progressive, bilateral wasting of skeletal muscles ( no neural or sensory deffects ) occurs during early childhood and death within 10 - 15 years.|
S/S - 1st affects leg and pelvic muscles
( waddling gait, toe walking and lordosis. )
Muscle deteriation is progressive and contractures develop.
Tx - orthopedic appliances, PT, exercises, surgery.
Prognosis - poor, wheel chair bound by age 9 - 12 with death occurring from cardiac or respiratory complications.
|What is the neoplasms of the MS system?|| Osteogenic sarcoma - primarily affects the long bones and is the most common primary neoplasm of this system.|
S/S - bone pain.
Prognosis - poor.
|Musculoskeletal diseases can occur||at any age and affects body structure, function, or movement and may require lifestyle adaptations.|