pH between 7.1-14
basic or alkaline
substances that release H+ (hydrogen ions) when dissolved in water......
pH of 5-6. ex:milk
pH of 3-4 ex:tomato juice
pH of 1-2 ex:hydrochloric acid
the more H+ there are
the STRONGER the acid is
characteristics of acids
-reacts strongly with metal
-can burn your skin
makes litmus papers red
also known as alkalines
releases OH- (hydroxide ions)
examples of bases
soaps, cleaners, detergents
bases turn litmus paper.....
pH of 12-13 ex:drano
pH of 10-11 ex:ammonia
pH of 8-9 ex:eggs
characteristics of bases
-can bun skin
to much acid can
-lead to indegestion aka heartburn
-acid reflux- acid that comes up the esophagus
-ulcers- soars caused by acid eating away at the walls of the stomach
4 elements make up 96% of the human body
vital in maintaining healthy cells in organisms
smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Building blocks of all matter
two or more elements chemically combined. very different from those of the elements from those of the elements that makeup the compound
.substances that start the reaction
.placed on the left side of the equation
.substances that are formed by the reaction
.placed on the right side of the equation
combination of substances where the components keep their own properties
ex. sand and sugar
combination where one or more substances(solutes) are distrubuted evenly in another substance (solvent). Solvent is always a liquid.
ex. sugar in a powdered drink
compounds that do not contain both carbon and hydrogen
compounds that contain both carbon and hydrogen
main source of energy
starch and sugars
examples of carbohydrates
carbs have a what to what ratio
2:1 ratio between H:O
carbohydrates are composed of
Carbon Oxygen and Hydrogen
simplest carbohydrate or simplest sugars
two simple sugars combine to form one
long chains of monosaccharides bonded together.
ex:starch and cellulose(cell wall of plants)
includes fats and oils it= stored energy,
lipids are composed of
carbon hydrogen and oxygen NO 2:1 RATIO H:O
lipids that are solid at room temperature
lipids that are liquid at room temperature
building blocks of lipids
fatty acids, and glycerol
Proteins are made of
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
building blocks of proteins
2 amino acids bonded together
many amino acids bonded together
how many amino acids are in living things
20 ex: enzymes, hormones, hemoglobin, antibodies.
used to rebuild muscle tissue and cell repair
Enzymes (end in ase)
laarge complex protein molecules that control the reate of chemical reactions
something that speeds up or slows down a chemical reaction
in cellular chemical reactions there is a ( ) catalyst
influenced by temperature, concentration of enzyme and substance, and pH
large molecules made up of C,H,O,N,P
(carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and )
building block of nuceic acids.
nucleic acids are composed of
5 carbon sugar, nitrogen base, and a phosphate group.
how many types of nucleic acids are there?
makes up groups and involved in heredity
involved in the making of proteins
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