Honors Biology Chapter 6: chemistry of life

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pH between 0-6.9

acidic

pH between 7.1-14

basic or alkaline

pH of 7

Nuetral

acids

substances that release H+ (hydrogen ions) when dissolved in water......

weak acids

pH of 5-6. ex:milk

moderate acid

pH of 3-4 ex:tomato juice

strong acid

pH of 1-2 ex:hydrochloric acid

the more H+ there are

the STRONGER the acid is

characteristics of acids

-tastes sour
-reacts strongly with metal
-can burn your skin

makes litmus papers red

Acids

bases

also known as alkalines

releases OH- (hydroxide ions)

bases

examples of bases

soaps, cleaners, detergents

bases turn litmus paper.....

blue

strong bases

pH of 12-13 ex:drano

moderate bases

pH of 10-11 ex:ammonia

weak bases

pH of 8-9 ex:eggs

characteristics of bases

-taste bitter
-feel slippery
-can bun skin

acids+bases

= neutralization

to much acid can

-lead to indegestion aka heartburn
-acid reflux- acid that comes up the esophagus
-ulcers- soars caused by acid eating away at the walls of the stomach

4 elements make up 96% of the human body

-carbon
-oxygen
-hydrogen
-nitrogen

trace elements

vital in maintaining healthy cells in organisms
-Mg: magnessium

atom

smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Building blocks of all matter

compounds

two or more elements chemically combined. very different from those of the elements from those of the elements that makeup the compound

reactants

.substances that start the reaction
.placed on the left side of the equation

products

.substances that are formed by the reaction
.placed on the right side of the equation

mixture

combination of substances where the components keep their own properties
ex. sand and sugar

solutions

combination where one or more substances(solutes) are distrubuted evenly in another substance (solvent). Solvent is always a liquid.
ex. sugar in a powdered drink

inorganic compounds

compounds that do not contain both carbon and hydrogen

organic compunds

compounds that contain both carbon and hydrogen

main source of energy

carbohydrates

starch and sugars

examples of carbohydrates

carbs have a what to what ratio

2:1 ratio between H:O

carbohydrates are composed of

Carbon Oxygen and Hydrogen

monosaccharides

simplest carbohydrate or simplest sugars
ex:glucose (C6H12O6)

disaccharides

two simple sugars combine to form one
ex:maltose(C12H12O11)

polysaccharides

long chains of monosaccharides bonded together.
ex:starch and cellulose(cell wall of plants)

Lipids

includes fats and oils it= stored energy,

lipids are composed of

carbon hydrogen and oxygen NO 2:1 RATIO H:O

fats

lipids that are solid at room temperature

oils

lipids that are liquid at room temperature

building blocks of lipids

fatty acids, and glycerol

Proteins are made of

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

building blocks of proteins

amino acids

dipeptide

2 amino acids bonded together

polypeptide

many amino acids bonded together

how many amino acids are in living things

20 ex: enzymes, hormones, hemoglobin, antibodies.

used to rebuild muscle tissue and cell repair

proteins

Enzymes (end in ase)

laarge complex protein molecules that control the reate of chemical reactions

catalyst

something that speeds up or slows down a chemical reaction

in cellular chemical reactions there is a ( ) catalyst

(organic)

influenced by temperature, concentration of enzyme and substance, and pH

enzymes

Nucleic acids

large molecules made up of C,H,O,N,P
(carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and )

nucleotide

building block of nuceic acids.

nucleic acids are composed of

5 carbon sugar, nitrogen base, and a phosphate group.

how many types of nucleic acids are there?

two

DNA

makes up groups and involved in heredity

RNA

involved in the making of proteins

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