Abducent nerve (VI), opthalmic nerve (v1), occulomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), opthalmic veins.
Name the structure passing through the superior orbital fissure.
Maxillary division of trigeminal nerve (V2)
What structure passes through the foramen rotundum?
Emissary veins to nasal cavity
What structure passes through the foramen cecum?
Olfactory Nerves (I)
What structure passes through olfactory foramina in the cribiform plate?
Optic nerve; opthalmic artery
What structures pass through the optic canal?
Oplthalmic [v1], Maxillary [v2], Mandibular [V3]
What are the three branches of the trigeminal nerve (V)?
Mandibular nerve [V3]; lesser petrosal nerve
What structures pass through the foramen ovale?
Middle meningeal artery
What structure passes thru foramen spinosum?
Spinal cord; Vertebral arteries, spinal roots of the accessory nerve; meninges
What structures pass thru the foramen magnum?
Facial Nerve [VII], Vestibulocochlear Nerve [VIII], labyrinthe artery
What structures pass thru the internal acoustic meatus?
Glossopharyngeal nerve [IX], Vagus Nerve [X], Accessory Nerve [XI], Inferior Petrosal Sinus, Sigmoid Sinus (forming internal jugular vein)
What structures pass thru the jugular foramen?
Hypoglossal Nerve [XII], Meningeal branch of the ascending pharyngeal artery
What structures pass thru the hypoglossla canal?
What structure passes thru the condylar canal?
Facial Nerve [VII]
The greater petrosal nerve is a branch of which nerve?
Glossopharyngeal Nerve [IX]; Tympanic Plexus
The lesser petrosal nerve carries fiber that came originally from which nerve and originates where?
External carotid artery
The anterior, posterior, and middle meningeal arteries, in addition to ascending pharyngeal artery and occipital artery, all draw their origin from this artery?
Maxillary Artery; Ascending Pharyngeal, Occiptal Artery
Name all the direct branches of the external carotid.
Ascending branch of the pharyngeal artery; Meningeal branches of the occiptal artery
These vessels enters artery posterior cranial fossa thru the jugular foramen.
The meningeal branch of the vertebral artery enters thru the
Trigeminal Nerve [V1,V2,V3], Vagus [X], 1st, 2nd cervical nerves
Innervation of the dura is performed by
Abudcens [VI], Facial [VII], Vestibulocochlear [VIII], Glossopharyngeal [IX], Vagus [X], Accessory [XI], Hypoglossal [XII]
These cranial nerves draws their orgin from the medulla oblongota.
Internal Artery; Vetebral Artery
These two arteries combine to form the circle of willis.
Draw the circle of willis. P. 837 Gray's.
Straight sinus; inferior sagittal sinus.
The great cerebral vein is formed by these structures.
Draw the cavernous sinus. p. 844 Gray's.
Cerebral vein, opthalmic veins, and emissary veins of the pterygoid fossa
The cavernous sinuses recieve blood from which veins
Seeing, hearing, balance
The SSA nerves are associated with which senses?
The SVA nerves are associated with which senses?
GSE - levator palpebrae superioris; superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique. GVE - sphincter pupillae; cilliary muscles.
The oculomotor nerve [II] innervates these muscles.
Mandibular Nerve [V3]
What innervates the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?
The occulomotor carries GVE fibers that are what type of fibers?
What is the only nerve to exit the posterior surface of the brainstem?
A parasympathetic nuclei.
Cranial nerves 3, 7, 9, 10 all have what in common?
Where do the parasympathetic fibers of Occulomotor [III] synpase?
Mandibular [V3]; BE
What is the only division of the trigeminal nerve to carry a motor component, and of what type?
Temporalis, masseter, medial and lateral pterygoids; Mandibular Nerve [V3]
What are the four muscles of mastication and what innervates them?
Facial Nerve [VII]
This nerve controls secretion in the lacrimal gland, submandibular gland, sublingual salivary gland. Its parasympathetic nucleus is the pterygopalantine.
Facial Nerve [VII]
This nerve controls taste on the anterior 2/3's of the tongue.
This ganglion recieves input from the lesser petrosal nerve, a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve [IX], and innervates the parotid gland.
Facial Nerve [VII]
This nerve controls secretion in the lacrimal gland, submandibular gland, sublingual salivary gland. Its parasympathetic nucleus is the submandibular.
The branches of the genitculate ganglion are the greater petrosal nerve and the facial nerve that continues to give off the chorda tympanic and the nerve stapedius. What type of fibers running on the chorda tympani carry taste?
Carotid body and sinus
The glossopharyngeal [IX] fibers provide sensory input from where?
Glossopharyngeal Nerve [IX]
This nerve's SVA fibers communicate taste from the tongue.
Glossopharyngeal Nerve [IX]
This nerve controls secretory activity of the parotid gland.
The glossopharyngeal nerve enters the _____ foramen.
The aortic arch baroreceptors and chemoreceptors provide GVA fibers to this nerve.
Taste around the epiglotis is reported by the
The BE fibers of the vagus nerve innervates one tongue muscle. What is it?
Which nerve is responsible for all the nerves of the soft palate (except tensor veli palatini) and pharynx (except for styloparyngeus) and larynx?
The vagus nerve travels thru which foramen?
Trapezius and sternocleidomastoid
What two muscles does the spinal acccessory nerve innervate?
This cranial nerve controls all instrinic muscles of the tongue and most of the extrinsic(except for palantoglossus).
Facial Nerve [VII]
What nerve exists thru the stylomastoid foramen?
Facial Nerve [VII]; Termporal, Zygomatic, Buccal, Marginal Mandibular, Cervical Branches
This nerve is deeply invested in the parotid gland but does not provide any innervation. Name the nerve and its branches.
The facial nerve innervates structures derived from the _____ arch.
The trigeminal nerve innervates structures derived from the ____ arch.
The skin of the face is primarily innervated by the _____ nerve.
Mental Nerve, Buccal Nerve, Auriculotemporal Nerve, Lesser occipital nerve.
Name the branches of V3.
Infraorbital nerve, zygomaticofacial nerve, zygomaticotermporal nerve.
Name the branches of V2.
External nasal nerve, infratrochlear nerve, supratrochlear nerve, supraorbital nerve.
Name the branches of V1.
posterior ramus C2.
The occiput of the head's sensory innervation is thru
Facial Nerve [VII]
Loss of innervation of the orbicularis oculi causes an inability to close the eyelids tightly, resulting in spillage of tears. What nerve innervates the orbicularis oculi?
What nerve innervates the levator palpebrae superioris?
Facial Nerve parasympathetics --> greater petrosal nerve -->nerve of the pterygoid canal --> pterygoid palantine ganglion --> postglanglionics travel along maxillary nerve [V2] --> with zygomatictemporal nerve branch --> joins lacrimal nerve (branch of V2) to provide parasympathetic innervation.
Name the tract the facial nerve follows to innervate the lacrimal gland.
The carotid body; facial
The sympathetic fibers that innervate the lacrimal gland originate where and are part of what nerve?
shape of lens and the dilator pupillae.
Intrinsic muslces control
Obliques do complete opposite of action to test;inferior and superior Rectus do same Y movement opposite X movement to test; lateral and medial rectus do same movement and test
T or F? The oblique muscles attach to the common tendinous ring
Levator palpebrae superioris
Which muscle is the seventh muslce of the extrinsic muscles of the eye and is responsible for raising the eyelid?
The opthalmic artery is a branch of the _____ artery.
Central retinal artery.
This branch of the opthalmic artery is the main blood supply to the retina.
Posterior ethmoid artery; anterior ethmoid artery, dorsal nasal atery, supratrochlear artery, supra-orbital artery, long cilliary artery, central retinal artery short cilliary artery, lacrimal artery.
Name the branche sof the opthalmic artery, medial to lateral.
Inferior opthalmic vein
What structure passes thru the inferior orbital fissure?
T or F. The optic nerve is encased in meninges.
Superior Rectus and Levator Palpebrae superioris muscles
The superior branch of the occulomotor [III] nerve innervates which two muscles?
Draw figure 8.95 p. 894 Gray's.
This ganglion sends postganglionic parasympathetic fibers through the short cilliary fibers to innervate the spincter pupillae and ciliary muscles.
Frontal Nerve; Opthalmic Nerve [V1]; Supratrochlear and Supraorbital
This nerve exits the supraorbital foramen and innervates the forehead and scalp to the vertex of the scalp. What is the nerve and from which nerve is it a branch? Which two nerves does it give rise to?
Which nerve carries parasympathetic fibers, ultimately, from 3, 7, 9, 10?
Opthalmic [V1]; Occulomotor [III]
What branch carries parasympathetic fibers originating in the Edingers Westphal nucleus? Which cranial nerve contributes these fibers?
Short or long ciliary nerves.
Sympathetic fibers can travel of which two nerve possibilities to reach the dialtor pupillae muscle?
This nerve is the 1st branch of the opthalmic nerve usually.
Chorda tympani nerve
This section of a cranial nerve supplies one muscle in the ear and also conducts parasympathetic fibers to the submandibular ganglion.
Parasympathetics innervate this puillary muscle.
Sympathetics innervate this pupillary muscle.
In a detached retina, which layer seperates?
This spot on the retina has few cones but many rods, yielding the highest visual sensitivty.
The sympathetics that control the dilator pupillae originate where?
C2 and C3 spinal branches
The great auricular nerve originates from this source.
C2 and C3 spinal branches
The occipital nerve is derived from
superiorly, posteriorly, and slightly laterally.
Ideal examination can be achieved by pulling the ear
Vagus [X] and Mandibular [V3]
In the middle ear, the nerves responsible for sensory innervation are ______ and _______.
The tympanic membrane attaches to the ______ of ______.
Glossopharyngeal Nerve [IX]
The cranial nerve is responsible for sensory innervation of the entire tympanic membrane.
Malleus, Incus, Stapes
Name the bones of the ear from lateral to medial.
The chorda tympani and the tendon of the stapedius muscle enter thru the ____ wall of the middle ear.
chorda typmani nerve; facial nerve
Stapedius is innervated by the ______ nerve, which is a branch of the ______ nerve.
glossopharyngeal [IX] nerve
Tensor tympani muscle is innervated by the ______ nerve.
The chorda tympani nerve exits the _____ wall of the middle ear.
Internal carotid plexus; glossopharyngeal nerve
The tympanic plexus, found covering the promotory (produced by bulge of the cochlea) on the medial boundary of the inner ear, contains contributions from which nerves?
Branches from glossopharyngeal nerve through medial wall of middle ear thru middle cranial fossa, dives into foramen ovale to enter otic ganglion.
What the path undertaken by the lesser petrosal nerve?
The oval window is posteriorosuperior to the promotory, and is the point of attachment for the _____ of ______.
Venous drainage from the pharyngotympanic tube is to the ______ plexus of veins in the infratemporal fossa.
mandibular nerve [V3]
The tensor tympani muscle is innervated by
The tympanic artery is a branch of the
occipital artery; external carotid
The mastoid artery is a branch of _____ artery, which itself is a branch of the ______ artery. It runs under the posterior belly of the digastric muscle.
Foramen Ovale; otic ganglion
The lesser petrosal nerve exits the skull thru the ______ and synapses on the ______.
The bony labyrinthe consists of the vestibule, semicircular canals, and cochlea. It is filled with
cochlear duct; semicircular duct; endolymph
The _____ and ___ comprise te membranous labyrinthe along with two sacs; they contain ________.
The cochlear canaliculus near the round window provides a connection between the perilymph containing cochlear ducts and the _______.
The _____ responds to angular acceleration; the _____ responds to linear acceleration.
The chorda tympani exits the skull thru the ______ fissure.
inferior Alveolar nerve; Mandibular Nerve [V3]
The mandibular foramen contains what nerve? It is a branch of which nerve?
Genioglossus, Styloglossus, Hyoglossus.
Hypoglossus GoSH. Muscles of hypoglossal innervation.
masseter, temporalis, medial and lateral pterygoid
The muscles of mastication are the
The muscles of mastication are supplied by the ______ nerve.
Tensor tympani muscle is innervated by the ______ nerve, traveling back up thru foramen __________.
middle temporal artery; superficial temporal artery; maxillary artery
The blood supply to the temporalis is provided by the _____; it is a branch of the ______. Anastomsis is provided with the _____ artery by the _____ _____ arteries.
tensor vali palantini; lateral pterygoid (upper head)
The auriculotemporal nerve passes between which two muscles?
Glossopharyngeal nerve [IX]; parotid
The auriculotemporal nerve carries postganglionic parasympathetic fibers of what nerve and delivers them to what gland?
The chorda tympani joins this branch of the mandibular nerve.
The _______ nerve carries parasympathetics to all salivary glands below the level of the oral fissure and also is responsible for taste on the anterior 2/3 of the tongue.
Incisive and mental
The terminal branches of the inferior alveolar nerve are the ____ and ___ nerves.
Chorda Tympani; Glossopharyngeal [IX]
These two nerves join the mandibular nerve in the infratemporal fossa.
preganglionic parasympathetic from greater petrosal nerve; sympathetic from the deep petrosal nerve of the carotid plexus
The nerve of ptergygoid canal canal enters the ptergygopalantine fossa. It carries what fibers?
Sphenopalantine foramen; pterygopalantine ganglion
The nasal nerves pass thru which foramen off of V2? After which ganglion?
The infraoribital nerve is a continuation of _______ nerve.
The middle and anterior draw their origin from the infraorbital nerve; the posterior superior draws its origin directly from the maxillary nerve.
What is the difference between the posterior superior alveloar nerve and the anterior and middle superior alveolar?
Does the maxillary nerve provide any motor innervation?
Greater petrosal nerve [VII]; deep petrosal nerve (branch of carotid plexus)
The nerve of the pterygoid canal is formed by the ______ and ______ nerves.
The greater petrosal nerve is joined by the deep petrosal nerve under what structure?
The orgin of the sympathetics of the deep petrosal nerve is where?
Internal Carotid Nerve
Sympathetics from T1 synpase on the superior cervical ganglion and go on to form what nerve?
Which nerve gives off the "special case"automnomic nerve that joins lacrimal nerve from V1?
Lesser palantine; Artery of the pterygoid canal; Pharyngeal Artery, Spenopalantine Artery, Infra-orbital artery
Name the branches of the maxillary artery.
sternocleidomastoid; middle 1/3 of mandible; trapezius muscle
What are the boundaries of the posterior triangle of the neck?
Mandible, sternocleidomastoid, middle of neck
What are the boundaries of the anterior triangle of the neck?
Superficial and maxillary veins
What two veins joins to form the external jugular vein?
Mandible, anterior and posterior bellies of the digastric muscle
The submandibular triangle is outlined by what strucutres?
Facial; Mylohyoid nerve; Inferior Alveolar Nerve; Mandibular Nerve [V3]
The posterior belly of the digastric muscle is innervated by the ______ nerve; the anterior belly is innervated by the ______ nerve, which is a branch of ________ , which is a branch of the ______ nerve.
This muscle forms the floor of the mouth and joins with its partner on the opposite side.
Anterior branch of C1 carries along the hypoglossal nerve.
What nerve innervates the geniohyoid nerve?
Mylohyoid, Geniohyoid, Stylohyoid, Digastric Muscle
What muscles comprise the suprahyoid muscles?
Sternohyoid, Omohyoid, Thyrohyoid, Sternothyroid
What muscles comprise the infrahyoid "strap" muscles?
Thyrohyoid; C1 anterior rami fibers carried on hypoglossal nerve
All of the infrahyoid muscles ( Sternohyoid, Omohyoid, Thyrohyoid, Sternothyroid) are innervated by C1-C3 anterior rami thru the ansa cervicalis except for one. Which one and what is its innervation?
Glossopharyngeal Nerve; Glossopharyngeal Nerve and Vagus Nerve
At the bifurcation of the common carotid artery, the artery is dialated, containing a sinus that contains receptors that monitor changes in blood pressure. What innervates this carotid sinus? Another area in the sinus is called the carotid body, and detects changes in blood chemistry such as PO2. This is innervated by?
T or F: The internal carotid artery gives off branches.
Superior thyroid artery, ascending pharygeal artery; lingual artery, facial artery; Maxillary artery, Superficial Temporal Artery; Posterior Auricular Artery; Occipital Artery
Name the branches of the external carotid artery.
Posterior Belly of Digastric; Stylohyoid Muscle; Platysma
What muscles of the neck does the facial nerve innervate after emerging from the stylomastoid foramen and branching?
This nerve travels between the internal jugular and internal cartoid after exiting thru the jugular canal. It passes between the internal and external carotid arteries and curves around the lateral margin of the stylopharyngeus muscle. It innervates the stylopharyngeus muscle and also supplies sensory to the pharnyx.
This nerve travels through the internal jugular foramen down the neck enclosed in a sheath posterior to the carotid and medial the internal jugular. It provides a motor branch to the pharnyx.
This nerve travels through the jugular foramen and crosses the internal jugular vein laterally. It dissappear into or beneath the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
This nerve passes between the internal carotid and the jugular vein. It hooks around the occipital artery and continues deep to the posterior belly of the digastric and stylohyoid muscles before dissappearing.
The superior root of the ansa cervicalis is formed by _____ nerve and ______ .
Second and Third
The thyroid gland can be found at the level of the ____ and ___ cartilages.
Superior Thyroid Artery; Inferior Thyroid Artery; External Carotid; Thyrocervical Trunk
Two major areries supply the thyroid. What are they? From what vessels do they draw their own orgin?
Where do the inferior thyroid veins drain?
Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve
A structure passes through the ligaments that bind the thyroid to the trachea. What structure is this?
The parathyroid glands are derivatives of the ____ and ____ pharyngeal pouches.
Hypoglossal nerve [XII]; mylohyoid nerve
What are the two nerves of the submandibular triangle?
Mylohyoid muscle; Anterior belly of digastric muscle
The mylohyoid muscle supplies which two muscles?
Lesser occipital nerve, great auricular nerve, transverse cervical nerve, supraclavicular nerves.
Name the branches of cervical plexus. Page 975
All branches of the subclavian artery emerge on which part of the artery?
Vertebral, thyrocervical trunk, internal thoracic artery, costocervical trunk.
Name the branches of the subclavian artery from medial to lateral.
Inferior thyroid artery, transverse cervical artery, and suprascapular artery.
Name the branches of the thyrocervical trunk.
Ascending cervical artery
What important branch does the inferior thyroid artery gives off that supplies prevertebral muscles and sends branches to the spinal cord?
T or F. Gray rami communicans only connect the sympathetic trunk to ganglia.
Mastoid and occipital passes into the superificial or deep lymph nodes?
Drainage from the submental, submandibular, pre-auricular, parotid nodes passes into the superficial or deep lymph nodes?
Superior constrictor muscle and buccinator
The pteryomandibular raphe joins what two muscles? It runs from the tip of the pterygoid hamulus to a roughening behind the third molar.
All three constrictors of the pharnyx are innervated by the _______ nerve.
All the muscles of the pharnyx are innervated by the ______ nerve (Salpingopharyngeus, Palatopharyngeus, Constrictors) except the stylopharyngeus which is innervated by the _______ nerve.
What fold overlies the tensor veli palantine muscle?
The palatopharyngeal arch overlies which muscle?
Facial; Ascending Pharyngeal Branch, Tonsilar, Lingual
The superior pharnyx is supplied with blood by the branches of the ______ artery. These braches are the ______, _____, ______ arteries.
The inferior pharynx is supplied by the ______ of the subclavian artery.
The pharnyx drains into the deep lymphatic nodes of the ______ space.
The nerve innervating the palantine tonsil and the oropharynx for sensory is the glossopharyngeal nerve. It is also the afferent limb of the _____.