What is the rahbah?
The central space or the great open plaza including the Palace of the caliph and the congregational mosque.
How many concentric zones are comprised in Baghdad?
3 concentric zones
What is located at the rahbah?
The mosque and palace
One of the precursors to DOTR (Dome of the Rock) is?
The Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem
The concentric aisle in DOTR was meant for?
Where is the rock in DOTR located?
In a small cave with a single opening.
In which city is DOTR located?
Describe the geometry of DOTR?
An octogon within a circle, a domed central space, surrounded by a path for circumambulation, has an entrance for each cardinal point. (North, South, East, West)
Describe the structure of DOTR?
Double shelled structure, (32) converging wooden ribs
What is a sahn?
An open arcaded courtyard, containing a fountain for ritual ablutions.
What is a mihrab?
Niches set into the wall to indicate the direction of Mecca.
What is a qibla?
The direction of the prayer.
What is a minbar?
A raised pulpit from which Qur'anic readings and sermons were given.
What is a riwaq?
3 halls, which run parallel to the qibla wall.
What is a maqsura?
A separate often square enclosure within the mosque and close to the mihrab.
What are the basic components of the Arab style mosque?
sahn, haram, mihrab, and a minbar. (possibly a minaret as well)
What is the shape of the arches in the Cordoba mosque?
The Roman precusor to the Cordoba mosque was?
the Roman aqueduct at Merda.
Which visual feature at the Cordoba mosque links it to Roman masonry?
Describe the shape of the minaret, at the Samarra mosque?
Snail shell / (heliocoidal)
What are (2) features that define the Persian mosque?
The domed chamber and the iwan.
A vaulted open hall with a rectangular arched facade
In the Dark Ages, the Western Roman Empire disintegrated into?
Regional and tribal states
In the Dark Ages, what language was lost.
What caused the decline of cities during the dark ages?
Invasion; lost engineering techniques; lost knowledge; depressed economy.
In the early Middle Ages the population of Europe was comprised of?
Peasants, priests, warriors
Why did the classical civilization decline?
Lack of cities and language.
What construction skills were lost during the dark ages?
Concrete construction; large scale vaulting; classical orders; monumental planning.
After the dark ages, European civilization was renamed after emperor?
Charlemagne considered who to be the model for the ruler of a universal Christian monarchy?
The term "Carolingian" derives from?
What is meant by the term Carolingian Renaissance?
European revitalization/ effort to reproduce Roman architecture in terms of scale and geometric order.
The Palace complex, Aachen was modeled after what?
the Lateran Palace in Rome
Historians believe the Palatine Chapel was based upon?
San Vitale in Ravenna.
The best example of surviving Carolingian architecture is?
the Palatine Chapel
The Palatine Chapel was designed by
Odo of Metz
What was the 1st domed building North of the Alps?
the Palatine Chapel
Describe the geometry of the Palatine Chapel?
•Domed, double-shelled, two-storied octagon
•Eight great piers support the dome
•Reminiscent of Early Christian and Byzantine architecture
How many pier support the dome in the Palatine Chapel?
Describe the construction system of the Palatine chapel?
Vaults surround the articulated domed space.
The Palatine Chapel was based upon modular construction, T/F?
The Abbey Church at Fulda was based upon?
St Peters in Rome
The Romanesque style was based on _____ architecture?
In the Romanesque style, the _____ system of construction was used?
The basic structural components used in Roman styles were?
the Semicircular arch, the Barrel vault, and the Groin vault.
The number of apses in St. Micheal's was?
The number of transepts in St. Micheal's was?
Also (2) transepts
Name the 5 pilgrimage churches of Romanesque architecture?
»St.-Foyes at Conques
»St.-Sernin at Toulouse
»St.-Martial in Limoges (destroyed).
»St.-Martin at Tours (destroyed)
How were the spatial qualities of the 5 pilgrimage churches different from earlier styles?
•A projecting wall system of pier
A structural element, square or rectangular in plan, that supports an arch.
A rectangular column, engaged in a wall, which is sometimes articulated as an order.
A vertical, usually cylindrical, support, commonly consisting of a base, shaft, and capital.
Define engaged column?
A column attached to or appearing to be partly embedded within a wall.
When a child draws a hopscotch out of chalk, what are they REALLY drawing?
The early Romanesque church plan.
Where did the Gothic style originate?
Describe geometry of Gothic plan?
Like a crucifix.
What is a nave?
a (l o n g) aisle that progresses down the cathedral
What is a crossing?
the area where the nave and the transept meets
What is a lantern in a Gothic church?
tower built over the crossing
What are transepts?
the aisle that runs North to South in the church
What are the key features of the Gothic style?
Flying buttresses, ribbed vaults, pointed arches
Pointed arches originated from what?
It took (how many) years for the team of carvers to complete all 3,500 characters taken from the bible?
The main purpose of works of art in the middle ages was (____), and the 100 or so sculptures are in fact a complete Bible carved in stone?
Using a new (____) method that cleans the dirt without affecting the original stonework?
The construction of this rude screen however, seemed to (____) the attitude of the Catholic Church?
They needed to reconstruct the cathedral after it was destroyed by a (____)?
In 400AD, much of Europe was being attacked and raided by Northern 'barbarians'. The Europeans on the northeast Italian mainland fled where to procure safety?
(C). The Venetian Lagoon
The sediment under the Venetian Islands is soft and muddy. What did they put in the earth to create a firmer foundation in order to build their structures?
(D). Wooden Logs
What saint did they steal from Egypt in 829 AD and house in the crypt of the Basilica on the Rialto Islands?
(A). Saint Marc
By the 1300's, how many ships were in the Venetian fleet? And what spice was their primary good in trading?
(D). 3000 ships; salt
What factor(s) are contributing to the slow sinking of the Venetian Islands?
(D). ↓ All of the above ↓
•Rise in sea level
•The crystalization of salt in brick
Describe geometry of Hellenistic Damascus.
Uniform grid, agorian city-center, small blocks of houses on standard size lots
2 main foci in Hellenistic Damascus.
Agora and the Temple of Jupiter
What is the geometry of Baghdad?
At the center was the rahbah, with concentric zones divided into four quadrants surrounding the mosque or palace inside the rahbah.
In Islamic cities the marketplace was called...?