Cell Energetics Honors Biology

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Enzyme

Biological catalyst made of amino acids.

Substrate

Reactant an enzyme catalyzes

Active Site

structure on the enzyme

Reactants

The molecules needed for a chemical reaction to occur

Products

Molecules that are made when a chemical reaction is over

Activation Energy

The amount of energy needed for a reaction to occur.

Heat of Reaction

The difference in energy between the reactants and products of a chemical reaction

Exothermic

a reaction that has a "-" heat of reaction b/c it releases more energy that it stores

Endothermic

a reaction that has a "+" heat of reaction and stores more energy than it releases.

Catalyst

Speeds up a chemical reaction

Variables that effect enzyme reaction rate

Temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration

denature

enzyme becomes "inactive" due to changes in the active site structure

enzyme specificity

enzyme only bonds to one substrate due to shape of active site

ATP

(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work

ADP

ATP is converted to this and it releases energy that your cells use

chemosynthesis

Process by which some organisms, such as certain bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates

photosynthesis

Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars

producer

An organism that can make its own food.

autotroph

An organism that makes its own food

consumer

An organism that eats other organisms

heterotroph

An organism that cannot make its own food.

food chain

is the transfer of food energy from one source to the next

herbivore

A consumer that eats only plants.

carnivore

An animal that eats other animals

omnivore

A consumer that eats both plants and animals.

detritivore

organism that feeds on plant and animal remains and other dead matter

decomposer

An organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms

trophic level

Each step in a food chain or food web

food web

A diagram that shows the feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem.

biomass

A measure of the total dry mass of organisms within a particular region

primary producer

Organisms in the first trophic level, such as plants and algae.

primary consumer

An herbivore; an organism in the trophic level of an ecosystem that eats plants or algae

secondary consumer

An organism that eats primary consumers

teritary consumer

An animal that feeds on secondary consumers in a food chain.

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