APUSH Ch. 18 Review

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AP US History American Pageant 13th Ed. Chapter 18 Review (Vocab + Questions) Also used: http://wikinotes.wikidot.com/chapter-18-13

Election of 1848

Lewis Cass (Democrat who support popular sovereignty) vs. Zachary Taylor (Whig party); Taylor won

popular sovereignty

the people of a territory should decide and issue for themselves

Zachary Taylor

Whig Party candidate in the election of 1848

Lewis Cass

Democratic Party candidate in the election of 1848

Sutter's Mill

Where gold was first discovered in 1848; marked the beginning of the Gold Rush

Result of the Gold Rush

California had enough people to become a state

Fugitive Slave Law

"round up" runaways up North and ship them back South

Underground Railroad

a secret route from "station to station" that led many slaves to the North and eventually to Canada

Harriet Tubman

most well-known "conductor" of the "railroad;" snuck back into the South 19 times and led some 300+ slaves to freedom

Henry Clay

the "Great Compromiser;" offered a compromise for the California slavery issue

John C. Calhoun

argued for the South and for states' rights; wanted slavery to be left alone, the runaway slaves to be returned to the South, and state balance kept intact

Daniel Webster

argued for the North; opposed to slavery's expansion

Seventh of March

In this speech, Webster urged the North to compromise on the issue of California slavery

William H. Seward

Chief among the Young Guard; staunchly against slavery
Said Americans must follow "higher law"

higher law

God's law, above the Constitution

Millard Fillmore

Took over for President Taylor when he died (was Taylor's VP)

Compromise of 1850

North:
• California admitted as a free state
• Texas gave up its claims to lands disputed with New Mexico
• Slave trade in D.C. was banned, but slavery was legal
South:
• Popular sovereignty in Mexican Cession lands
• Texas was paid $10 million for land lost
• A new, tougher Fugitive Slave Law of 1850

Election of 1852

Franklin Pierce (Democrat) vs Winfield Scott (Whig); Pierce won landslide

Franklin Pierce

Democratic candidate in the election of 1852; was not a great leader, but had no enemies

Winfield Scott

Whig candidate in election of 1852
Nicknamed "Old Fuss and Feathers"

Free Soil Party

Party that garnered 5% of the Northern vote

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty

Treaty that erased U.S. and British tensions and said neither the U.S. or Britain would take over the area without the other's agreement

slavocracy

a conspiracy theory where the South was supposedly always seeking to add new slave lands

William Walker

tried to take over Nicaragua in 1856

Ostend Manifesto

said the U.S. would offer $120 million for Cuba, and if Spain rejected it, the U.S. would be justified in taking Cuba by force

Black Warrior

American ship seized by Cuba

Caleb Cushing

Sent by President Tyler to China to work a favorable deal to the U.S.

Commodore Mathhew Perry

got Japan to open itself to trade in the Treaty of Kanagawa

Treaty of Kanagawa

Perry got Japan to open up to U.S. to trade

James Gadsden

sent to Mexico to work a deal for the land

Gadsden Purchase

bought the southern chunk of present Arizona and New Mexico for $10 million

Stephen Douglas

threw a wrench in the railroad plans

Kansas-Nebraska Act

proposed to organize Kansas and Nebraska and move the transcontinental railroad up north

self-determination

In politics, the right of a people to assert its own national identity or form of government without outside influence

homestead

A family home or farm with buildings and land sufficient for survival

vigilante

Concerning groups that claim to punish crime and maintain order without legal authority to do so

sanctuary

place of refuge or protection, where people are safe from punishment by the law

fugitive

A person who flees from danger or prosecution

topography

The precise surface features and details of a place - for example, rivers, bridges, hills - inrelation to one another

mundane

Belonging to this world, as opposed to the spiritual world

statecraft

The art of government leadership

isthmian

Concerning a narrow strip of land connecting two larger bodies of land

filibustering

Adventurers who conduct a private war against a foreign country

mikado

A title of the Japanese emperor used by foreigners

cloak-and-dagger

Concerning the activities of spies or undercover agents, especially involving elaborate deceptions

manifesto

A proclamation or document aggressively asserting a controversial position or advocating a daring course of action

booster

One who promotes a person or enterprise, especially in a highly enthusiastic way

truce

A temporary suspension of warfare by agreement of the hostile parties

Stephen A. Douglas

Illinois politician who helped smooth over sectional conflict in 1850 but then reignited it in 1854

Franklin Pierce

Weak Democratic president hose pro-soutthern cabinet pushed aggresive expansionist schemes

District of Columbia

Place wehre the slave trade was ended by the Compromise of 1850

Fire-eaters

Hotheaded southern agitators who pushed for southern interests and favored secession from the Union

Mason-Dixon line

The boundary line between slave and free states in the East, originally the southern border of Pennsylvania

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty

An agreement between Britain and America concerning any future Central American canal

Ostend Manifesto

A top-secret dispatch, drawn up by American diplomats in Europe, that detailed a plan for seizing Cuba from Spain

Missouri Compromise

The sectional agreement of 1820, repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act

Democratic (Party)

The political party that was deeply divided by Douglas's Kansas-Nebraska Act

Republican (Party)

A new political party organized as a protest against the Kansas-Nebraska Act

Whig (Party)

The conflict over slavery after the election of 1852 led shortly to the death of this party

The North

The greatest winner in the Compromise of 1850

California

Under the terms of the Compromise of 1850, the state that was admitted as a free state

Utah and New Mexico

Under the terms of the Compromise of 1850, the states that slavery was left up to popular sovereignty

Henry Clay and Daniel Webster

The two notable advocates of compromise in the controversy over slavery in 1850

Daniel Webster

During the debate over the Compromise of 1850, northern antislavery forces were particularly outraged by what they considered the "betrayal" of this senator

Kansas-Nebraska

Act wrecked the Compromise of 1850 and created deep divisions within the Democratic Party.

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