Chap 9 - Plant Organization and Function

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When you have waxed your car, rainfall makes very large droplets that roll around on the hood. This property where the water molecules stick together is known as

cohesion.

Monocots differ from eudicots in that monocots have

leaf veins that are parallel.

Which of these is paired INCORRECTLY?

( ) protoderm-epidermis
( ) protoderm-primary xylem
( ) ground meristem-pith
( ) ground meristem-cortex
( ) procambium-vascular cambium

protoderm-primary xylem

What organic substance makes the walls of sclerenchyma cells tough and hard?

lignin

Upon visiting a redwood forest, you realize that because of their meristematic tissue these ancient trees are still growing.

True or False?

True

Which of the following is NOT true about the cohesion-tension model of water transport?

( ) Water must completely fill the pipeline
( ) Water molecules attract one another
( ) Transpiration exerts a tension at the leaves
( ) Water is transported in the phloem
( ) Water must be attracted to the sides of the xylem

Water is transported in the phloem

Which structure is directly associated with the terminal bud?

( ) shoot tip
( ) zone of cell division
( ) zone of maturation
( ) zone of elongation
( ) none of these are associated with the terminal bud

shoot tip

Which of the following statements is NOT correct about the arrangement of tissue in the eudicot root?

( ) The epidermis of the root consists of a single layer of cells
( ) The specialized root tissues can be seen at the zone of maturation
( ) The pericycle is the outer layer of cells in the vascular cylinder and has the ability to form secondary or branch roots
( ) The Casparian strip is a waxy lining on four sides of the cells of the endodermis that regulates the movement of materials into and out of the vascular cylinder.
( ) The star-shaped phloem is located in the center of the vascular cylinder, with xylem arranged between the arms of the phloem.

The star-shaped phloem is located in the center of the vascular cylinder, with xylem arranged between the arms of the phloem

Which of the following is NOT true of primary and secondary growth?

( ) occur in woody stems
( ) increase both the length and girth of plants, respectively
( ) involve two types of meristem tissues
( ) occur in both woody and herbaceous stems
( ) occur in trees and shrubs

occur in both woody and herbaceous stems

A cross section through the zone of maturation of a root would show

transport tissues.

The waxy material known as the Casparian strip is found on the

endodermal cells.

The specialized tissue in a root that functions in food storage is the

cortex.

The tendrils that support vining plants are a type of stem.

True or False?

False (tendrils are specialized leaves)

Which of the following statements is NOT true about wood?

( ) In the temperate regions, wood forms annual rings
( ) The vessels will be larger in size in the spring due to more moisture
( ) The wood produced in the summer will have a lower proportion of vessels than wood produced in the spring
( ) In large trees, the most recently formed layer of cells transports water
( ) Heartwood transports water to the leaves throughout the life of the tree

Heartwood transports water to the leaves throughout the life of the tree

Considering that leaf stomata have the conflicting functions of allowing gaseous carbon dioxide into the leaf, yet preserving the plant's supply of water, which of the following is NOT reasonable?

( ) Tree leaves that orient flat and present the top side to the sun would have most of their stomata on the bottom of the leaf
( ) A submerged-water plant would have no stomata
( ) Corn, oats, rice, and wheat (all monocots) have relatively upright blades with sunlight hitting both sides and would have stomata distributed fairly evenly on both sides
( ) Leaves of plants in dry areas will have more stomata than leaves of plants in humid areas
( ) Plants in arid environments open their stomata at night when temperatures are cooler and evaporation occurs less

Leaves of plants in dry areas will have more stomata than leaves of plants in humid areas

Which feature is NOT found on the epidermis of a plant leaf?

( ) bundle sheath cells
( ) stomata
( ) cuticle
( ) trichomes
( ) guard cells

bundle sheath cells

If you wanted to grow a new plant in the laboratory with the appropriate technology, which tissue type would you NOT start with?

( ) companion cells
( ) parenchyma cells
( ) sieve-tube members
( ) epidermis
( ) meristem

sieve-tube members

During the daytime, stomata in leaves

give off oxygen and take in carbon dioxide.

Which two structures are associated with the terminal bud?

( ) apical meristem and leaf primordia
( ) shoot tip and zone of maturation
( ) apical meristem and zone of cell division
( ) zone of cell division and leaf primordial
( ) none of these structures are associated with the terminal bud

apical meristem and leaf primordia

Which cell found in phloem tissue has a nucleus?

( ) vessel element
( ) tracheids
( ) sieve-tube member
( ) guard cell
( ) companion cell

companion cell

Trees are often identified by their leaves. What information about the leaves would you need to observe in order to identify the tree?

blades, pattern of venation, and arrangement on stem

Root hairs are found in which area of the root?

zone of maturation

The role of mycorrhizae is to

improve the extraction of water and minerals from the soil.

Plant vascular tissue contains

xylem and phloem.

Some plant leaves and stems are covered with hairs.

True or False?

True

Which of the following is a reproductive structure of a plant?

( ) roots
( ) stems
( ) flowers
( ) leaves
( ) shoot system

flowers

Cabbage, spinach, and lettuce all come from which part of the plant?

leaves

In roots, which structure increases surface area for the absorption of water and minerals from the soil?

( ) root hairs
( ) root cap
( ) Casparian strip
( ) vascular cylinder
( ) zone of elongation

root hairs

What specialized types of primary meristem develop from a shoot apical meristem?

protoderm, ground meristem, procambium

The tissue layers of a leaf, from the upper surface to the lower surface, are

cuticle, epidermis, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll, epidermis, cuticle

The function of the spongy layer of a leaf is primarily

gas exchange.

Which of the following is a monocot?

( ) dandelions
( ) oak trees
( ) maple trees
( ) palm trees
( ) roses

palm trees

Your task in the laboratory is to find cells that have projections to increase surface area for absorption of water and minerals. Which of the following slides would you use to find these cells?

( ) Eudicot woody stem slide
( ) Leaf slide of moncot or eudicot
( ) Monocot stem slide
( ) Root slide showing root cap
( ) Root slide showing zone of maturation

Root slide showing zone of maturation

While transplanting flowers you accidentally damaged the roots. What is the most likely scenario that will occur as a result of damage to the roots?

( ) The slimy sheath on the root cap has been wiped off and the parenchyma cells were damaged resulting in damage to the zone of cell division.
( ) The slimy sheath on the root cap has been wiped off and the parenchyma cells were damaged resulting in damage to the zone of elongation.
( ) The slimy sheath on the root cap has been wiped off and the parenchyma cells were damaged resulting in damage to the zone of maturation.
( ) The slimy sheath on the root cap has been wiped off and the epidermal cells were damaged resulting in damage to the zone of cell division.
( ) The slimy sheath on the root cap has been wiped off and the epidermal cells were damaged resulting in damage to the zone of maturation.

The slimy sheath on the root cap has been wiped off and the PARENCHYMA cells were damaged resulting in damage to the zone of CELL DIVISION.

Which of the following is the correct sequence of zones in a longitudinal section of a root, starting from the bottom?

( ) zone of cell division → zone of elongation → zone of maturation
( ) zone of cell division → zone of maturation → zone of elongation
( ) zone of maturation → zone of elongation → zone of cell division
( ) zone of maturation → zone of cell division → zone of elongation
( ) zone of elongation → zone of maturation → zone of cell division

zone of cell division → zone of elongation → zone of maturation

Wood is composed of

secondary xylem.

When a plant grows upward, the distance between the internodes increases in length.

True or False?

True

The tissue that regulates entrance of minerals into the vascular cylinder of a root is(are) the

endodermis.

The roots of many plants have a relationship with fungi called

mycorrhizae.

Which of the following is NOT a major function of roots?

( ) absorb water
( ) absorb minerals
( ) produce hormones
( ) anchor and support the plant
( ) transport of materials throughout the plant

transport of materials throughout the plant

Which cells are relatively unspecialized and correspond to a generalized plant cell?

( ) epidermal
( ) tracheid
( ) parenchyma
( ) sclerenchyma
( ) meristem

parenchyma

Girdling a tree involves cutting a deep groove all the way around a tree trunk; it would have the effect of

interrupting the passage of phloem sap and killing the tree

Beans, peas, and other legumes have root nodules that are caused by ____ and have the role of ____.

bacteria, taking up and reducing atmospheric nitrogen

Which of these associations is INCORRECT?

( ) epidermal tissue-epidermal cell
( ) ground tissue-parenchymal cell
( ) ground tissue-tracheid
( ) vascular tissue-sieve-tube member
( ) vascular tissue-vessel element

ground tissue-tracheid

Most of the water obtained by a plant enters through the

root hairs.

The layer that makes the Casparian strip waterproof is made of

suberin and lignin.

Epidermal tissue, ground tissue, and vascular tissue systems are derived from

apical meristem.

Which events and features are correctly associated with the roots during the pressure-flow model of phloem transport?

( ) Sugar is stored in the sink. Cells use the sugar for cellular respiration. Water exits by osmosis and returns to the xylem.
( ) Sugars are stored in the source. Cells use the sugar for cellular respiration. Water exits by osmosis and returns to the xylem.
( ) Sugar is stored in the sink. Cells use the sugar for photosynthesis. Water exits by osmosis and returns to the xylem.
( ) Sugar is stored in the sink. Cells use the sugar for cellular respiration. Water exits by diffusion and returns to the phloem.
( ) Sugar is stored in the source. Cells use the sugar for photosynthesis. Water exits by osmosis and returns to the xylem.

Sugar is stored in the SINK. Cells use the sugar for CELLULAR RESPIRATION. Water exits by OSMOSIS and returns to the XYLEM.

The loss of water by evaporation from a leaf is termed

transpiration.

If you had a problematic hillside that continually eroded when it rained, plants with which type of roots would best solve your problem?

fibrous

The fibers that get stuck between your teeth when you eat celery are

collenchyma.

Stomata open

in the light when a plant is running photosynthesis.

The stalk that attaches a leaf blade to a stem is a/an

petiole.

Which statement is NOT true regarding phloem transport during the summer in plants?

( ) The leaves must make sugar.
( ) A higher pressure exists in the leaves than in the roots.
( ) Water follows sugar into sieve-tube members in the leaves.
( ) Sugar is transported by passive diffusion into sieve-tube members.
( ) There is a fluid flow from the leaves to the roots.

Sugar is transported by passive diffusion into sieve-tube members.

Both plants and animals have organs and tissues.

True or False?

True

Which of the following is NOT one of the zones found in a growing root?

( ) epidermis
( ) elongation
( ) cell division
( ) maturation
( ) none of these are zones found in growing roots

epidermis

Cells of the ground tissue system are called

parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma cells.

Only leaves carry out photosynthesis.

True of False?

False

A fifteen-foot tree growing in a fence row is used as a fence post to which barbed wire is stapled at a height of five feet. Years later, the tree is thirty feet high. The barbed wire of the fence is embedded in the tree bark at

still five feet high since the lengthening of the trunk occurs at the apical meristem.

The iris is a plant with long, sword-like leaves. Its flowers have six petals that form a tongue and "flags." When you cut through the stem to cut flowers for a bouquet arrangement, the many vascular bundles form tough "strings" throughout the stem. From this description, it is obvious that the iris is a

monocotyledon.

Which is NOT a correct association?

( ) strawberry-stolon
( ) onion-bulb
( ) iris-rhizome
( ) gladiolus-bulb
( ) potato-tuber

gladiolus-bulb

Which statement about leaves is NOT correct?

( ) The photosynthetic mesophyll is made up of an upper spongy layer and a lower palisade layer.
( ) The epidermis is covered by a waxy layer of cuticle that reduces water loss.
( ) Gas exchange occurs through tiny openings in the leaf surface called stomata.
( ) Vascular tissue is arranged in a net pattern in eudicots and a parallel pattern in monocots.
( ) Regulation of gas exchange through the leaf is the responsibility of the guard cells.

The photosynthetic mesophyll is made up of an upper spongy layer and a lower palisade layer.

The cells that make up xylem are no longer living.

True or False?

True

Sugars are conducted through plant tissues by the

phloem.

The vascular tissue in the leaf is referred to as a

vein.

A plant with small leaves and sunken stomata is most likely to be found in a

desert.

The meristematic tissue used for secondary growth that is found between the xylem and phloem of each vascular bundle in eudicot stems is termed the

vascular cambium.

An aphid is an insect that has mouthparts to sip plant sap. When placed on a herbaceous stem, it soon has its mouthparts embedded and is withdrawing plant sap. Sometimes so much plant sap is taken that it cannot use all of it and the aphid secretes droplets of the sugar to attract ants that in turn protect and care for the aphids. What layer of cells has the aphid's mouthparts tapped?

phloem

You need to identify a plant but it is winter and the leaves have fallen to the ground mixed with others. The parts of flowers, fruits, and seed leaves of germinating seeds are not available either. Your best clue to whether it is a monocot or a eudicot is to

cut the stem and if the vascular bundles are scattered in the stem, it is a monocot.

You are planning to build a swimming pool in your backyard. How close can you get to the trees in your backyard without disturbing their root structure?

at least 4-5 times the diameter of the crown of the tree

You can tell the age of a stem by counting the bud scale scars.

True or False?

True

Primary growth of a stem is due to the activity of the vascular meristem.

True or False?

False

Transpiration rates will NOT vary among plants.

True or False?

False

Which of these associations is INCORRECT?

( ) epidermal cell--protection
( ) stomata--gas exchange
( ) sclerenchyma cells--cell division
( ) sieve-tube members--sugar transport
( ) xylem cells--water transport

sclerenchyma cells--cell division

Xylem tissue contains

vessel elements and tracheids.

The point on a stem to which a leaf or bud is attached is termed the

node.

Evolutionary advantages of being "woody" include

tall growth that allows greater leaf access to sunlight.

Which stem modifications are underground, thin, papery leaves and have a thick stem that lie dormant during the winter?

( ) corms
( ) rhizomes
( ) stolons
( ) runners
( ) nodes

corms

Which association is INCORRECT?

( ) vessel element--xylem
( ) guard cells--epidermis
( ) parenchyma--ground tissue
( ) sieve-tube member--bark
( ) cuticle--epidermis

sieve-tube member--bark

Which of the following is the pathway for water transport in a plant?

( ) root hairs → cortex → vascular cylinder → leaf cells
( ) root hairs → pith → endodermis → xylem → leaves
( ) epidermis → cortex → phloem → root
( ) epidermis → pericycle → cortex → xylem → leaves
( ) root hairs → endodermis → leaves → xylem → pith

root hairs → cortex → vascular cylinder → leaf cells

Parasitic plants have specialized roots for invading a host plant's tissues. What are these roots called?

haustoria

If the pericycle in a plant was missing, what would be affected?

There would be no branch roots.

A stem is identified by being aboveground and green.

True or False?

False

The function of meristematic tissue is

production of new tissues.

For water transport to occur there must be

a continuous column of water in xylem and transpiration of water at the leaves.

Stomata

allow gas exchange.

As soon as a beautiful plant in your backyard blooms, you remove the flowers. By doing so, you have now inhibited the growth of the plant.

True or False?

False

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