Genetics Vocabulary

Created by lanmank 

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23 terms · Terms used in the study of genetics

heredity

the passing of traits from parents to offspring

trait

a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes

genetics

The scientific study of heredity

purebred

the offspring of many generations that have the same traits

gene

the section of a chromosome that controls a trait

alleles

the different forms of a gene

dominant allele

an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present

recessive allele

an allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present

hybrid

an organism that has two different alleles for a trait

probability

the likelihood that a particular event will occur

punnett square

a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross.

phenotype

physical characteristics of an organism

genotype

genetic makeup of an organism

homozygous

having two identical alleles for a trait

heterozygous

having two different alleles for a trait

codominance

occurs when both alleles for a gene are expressed in a heterozygous offspring

meiosis

the process by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to form sex cells

mutation

a random error in gene replication that leads to a change

sex-linked trait

Characteristic such as red-green color blindness, controlled by genes on the X chromosome also called an X linked trait.

carrier

a person who has one recessive allele for a trait, but does not have the trait

genetic disorder

an inherited disease or disorder that is caused by a mutation in a gene or by a chromosomal defect

pedigree

A chart or "family tree" that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait

karyotype

A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs

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