role of sex hormones
development and function of the reproductive organs
sexual behavior and drives
growth and development and many other organs and tissues
how are sperm delivered?
sperm are delivered to the exterior through a system of ducts- epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and urethra
accessory glands of the male reproductive system
seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands; these secretions are emptied into ducts during ejaculation
a sac of skin and superficial fascia; hangs outsid the abdominopelvic cavity; contains paired testes; is 3 degrees lower that core body temp. (temp. necessary for sperm production.)
the temp is kept constant by 2 sets of muscles; smooth muscle that wrinkles scrotal skin is the dartal muscle
divide the testis into 250-300 lobules, each contains seminiferous tubules (site of sperm production)
where are sperm conveyed through?
seminiferous tubules, tubulus rectus, rete testis, efferent ductules, epididymis
where does the blood supply to the testes come from?
Blood supply comes from the testicular arteries and testicular veins
What encloses nerver fibers, blood vessels, and lymphatics that supply the testes?
the spermatic cord
What produces androgens?
The interstitial (Leydig) cells outside the seminiferous tubules produce androgens.
What are the the external genitalia of the male?
the external genitalia of the male are the scrotum and the penis
What does the penis consist of?
the penis consists of the root and shaft that ends in the glans penis, prepuce, or foreskin, and the crura
What is the crura?
The proximal end surrounded by the ischocavernousus muscle; anchors penis to the pubic arch.
What is the makeup of the penis?
the penis is composed of the spongy urethra and 3 cylindrical bodies of erectile tissue (it is a spongy network of connective tissue and smooth muscle with vascular spaces)
What is an erection?
the erectile tissue fills with blood causing the penis to enlarge and become rigid
duct of the epididymis
microvilli (sterocilia) absorb testicular fluid and pass nutrients to stored sperm
what happens to the epididymis during ejaculation
the epididymis contracts expelling sperm into the ductus deferens
expands to form the ampulla and then joins the duct of the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct and propels sperm from the epididymis to the urethra
cutting and ligating the ductus deferens, which is a nearly 100% effective form of birth control
accessory gland of the male reproductive system; produces viscous alkaline seminal fluid; is 70% of volume of semen; joins the vas deferens to form the ejaculatory duct
contents of the viscous alkaline seminal fluid
fructose, ascorbic acid, coagulating enzyme (vesiculase) and prostiglandins
accessory gland of the male reproductive system; encircles part of the urethra inferior to the bladder; secretes a milky , slightly acid fluid
prostate fluid contains citrate, enzymes, and prostate-specific antigen; plays a role in the activation of sperm; enters the prostatic urethra during ejaculation
aka- Cowper's Glands; pea-sized glands inferior to the prostate; prior to ejaculation, produce a thick, clear mucus; lubricates the glans penis; neutralizes traces of acidic urine in the urethra
contents of semen
contains nutrients (fructose), protects and activates sperm, and facilitates their movement
prostaglandins in semen
decrease the viscosity of mucous in the cervix; stimulates peristalsis in the uterus
Alkalinity of semen
neutralizes the acid in the male urethra and the female vagina; antibiotic chemicals destroy certain bacteria;clotting factors coagulate just after ejaculation, then fibrinolysin; only 2-5 ml of semen are ejaculated
the enlargement and stiffening of the penis from the engorgement of erectile tissue with blood; initiated by sexual stimuli including- touch and mechanical stimulation of the penis; erotic sights, sounds and smells; and can be induced or inhibited by emotions or higher mental activity
a fertilized egg is called a/an __ when the chromosomes of both parents have mingled to form a diploid set.
when the three primary germ layers have formed, an individual is at a stage of development called the __
A conceptus is anchored to the endometrium by rootlike outgrowths of the syncytiotrophoblast called ___
Most fetal blood in the pulmonary trunk follows a shunt to the aorta called the __ instead of circulating through the lungs.
Respiratory distress syndrom results from a deficiency of pulmonary __ in the lungs of a premature infant.
Which term can be described as the process by which spermatozoa become capable of fertilizing and egg?
zygote, cleavage, morula, trophoblast, embryo, fetus
Which of these lists the stages of prenatal development in the correct order?
the accumulation of CO2 in the blood
During or immediately after birth, an infant is normally stimulated to breathe by
usually develop benign prostatic hyperplasia
Urine retention is a greater problem for elderly men that for elderly women because men
A sterile male with undeveloped testes, overdeveloped breasts, and unusually long arms and legs is most likely to have
Twins produced when a single egg is fertilized are called __ twins, and twins produced from two eggs that are ovulated are called __ twins.
The morula lies free in the uterine cavity fcor four to five days, At about 100 cells, the zona pellucida disintegrates and releases the conceptus. The stage is now called the
part of the placenta; the embryo
In the blastocyst, the trophoblast will become __, and the embroblast will become __.
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG); chorion
The trophoblast secretes __ and develops into a membrane called the __.
If the blastocyst implants in the uterine tube instead of the uterus, the pregnancy is called
14 to 15 weeks
In amniocentesis, a sample of amniotic fluid is removed, and the fetal cells are analyzed,. Over 20 congenital conditions can be identified by this procedure. Amniocentesis is best done during what time frame of pregnancy?
The epidermis, nervous system, pituitary, internal and internal ear are derived from the __.
The epithelia of the digestive tract, respiratory tract, urinary bladder, and accessory reproductive and digestive system glands are derived from __.
ductus venosus; ductus arteriosus
In the fetal circulation, the __ bypasses the liver, and the __ bypasses the lungs
A newborn infant is screened for this disorder, which prevents the individual from producing the amino acid tyrosine, a critical amino acid for the formation of melanin, EP, NE, thyroid hormones and dopamine.
The immune reponses of a neonate are weak. However, the mother supplies __ through the placenta and __ through the colostrum.
Jaundice is common in prenates, especially premature babies because of the buildup in the blood of
Follicles and oocytes develop during a portion of the ovarian cycle called the ___ phase.
In the luteal phase, the ovaries secrete mainly ___, which stimulates glycogen synthesis and mucus secretion in the uterus.
An adolescent girl's growth of axillary hair and apocrine glands is stimulated by androgens.
The__ glands of the female are homologus to the bulbourethral glands of the male.
All of the following processes are important in follicular development. Which one occurs first?
About 30% of the semen is produced by the __, a medial gland that encloses part of the urethra.
The blood- testis barrier is formed by tight junctions between the __ cells of the testis.
Which term can be described as the Embryonic precursor of the male reproductive tract?
Which term can be described as the cord that guides the descending testes into the fetal scrotum?
production of the larger gamete
When all sexually reproducing species of animals are considered, the one characteristic that most defines a female is __.
the pampiform plexus
The heat exchanger that prevents afferent blood from overheating the testes is__.
Urine formation begins with the filtration of fluid from a spheroid capillary bed called the ___.
___ is a process in which the renal tubules remove wastes from the blood and add them to the tubular fluid.
The__ reflex involuntarily empties the bladder unless one consciously suppresses urination.
The __ apparatus monitors the composition and concentration of the tubular fluid and adjusts the glomular filtration rate.
The proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs about the same amount of water regardless of the body's state of hydration.
podocyte foot process
Which term can be described as having spaces called glomerular filtration slits between them?
Which term can be described as the weight of urine per milliliter relative to the weight of distilled water per milliliter?
the renal pelvis
If we follow the ureter into the kidney, we find that the first structure to arise from it is
the glomerular filtration rate
The total amount of fluid entering the capsular spaces of all nephrons in a given time is called
the proximal convoluted tubule
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by __.
sodium, potassium, and chloride ions but not water
The thick segment of the ascending limb of the nephron loop is permeable to __.
afferent arteriole; efferent arteriole
Blood pressure in the glomerulus is unusuallu high compared to the other capillaries because the diameter of the ___ is greater that of the ___.
vasoconstricion of the afferent arteriole
Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate?
penicillin is removed from the blood by tubular secretion
The rate of renal clearance of penicillin is greater that the glomerular filtration rate. This suggests that __.
stimulates the formation of angiontensin I, which ultimately increases blood pressure
The kidneys secrete the enzyme renin, which____.
t12 to L3; right
The kidneys are located at levels __ vertebrae, and the __ kidney is more inferior because of the space occupied by the liver above it.
papillary duct- minor calyx- major calyx- renal pelvis
Trace urine from the collecting duct of the nephron to the ureter.
distal convoluted tubule-DCT
This tubule has a simple cuboidal epithelium nearly devoid of microvilli.
afferent arteriole; efferent arteriole
The __ feeds into the glomerulus and the ___ drains the glomerulus.
the concentration gradient is maintained in the renal medulla by __ nephrons, which make up __ % of the nephrons
efferent; a smaller
tje glomerulus has the highest blood hydrostatic pressure of any capillary bed in the body because it is drained by the __ arteriole, which has __ diameter that the arteriole feeding the glomerulus.
Which molecule would you expect to have the most difficulty crossing the glomerular filtration membrane?
kidney trauma or infection
You found a high level of albumin in the urine. This was most likely caused by___.
renin; increase blood pressure
A low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) will cause the juxtaglomerular cells to release __, which will __.
Water that is chemically sythesized by the body is called a-- to distinguish it from ingested water.
The hypothalamus has a nucleus callsed the __ that stimulates water intake and inhibits salivation.
A chemical that converts a strong acid or base to a weak one and thus resists pH changes is called a/an __.
The amount of water lost by way of the respiratory system is greater in cold weather than in hot weather.
water of oxidation 200mL/day
Which term can be described as the average production of metabolic water?
bicarbonate buffer system
Which term can be described as the buffers most responsible for stabilizing the pH of the blood?
phosphate buffer system
Which term can be described as the buffer in the renal tubules that supplements the action of bicarbonate ions?