primary sex organs
what are the primary human gonads?
testes and ovaries
produce sex cells
secrete male steroid sex hormones
estrogen and progesterone
female steroid sex hormones
ducts, glands, and external genitalia
accessory reproductive organs
role of sex hormones
development and function of the reproductive organs
sexual behavior and drives
growth and development and many other organs and tissues
located within the scrotum; produce sperm
how are sperm delivered?
sperm are delivered to the exterior through a system of ducts- epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and urethra
accessory glands of the male reproductive system
seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands; these secretions are emptied into ducts during ejaculation
a sac of skin and superficial fascia; hangs outsid the abdominopelvic cavity; contains paired testes; is 3 degrees lower that core body temp. (temp. necessary for sperm production.)
the temp is kept constant by 2 sets of muscles; smooth muscle that wrinkles scrotal skin is the dartal muscle
elevate the scrotum
surrounded by 2 tunics:
derived by the peritoneum
a fibrous capsule surrounding the testes
divide the testis into 250-300 lobules, each contains seminiferous tubules (site of sperm production)
where are sperm conveyed through?
seminiferous tubules, tubulus rectus, rete testis, efferent ductules, epididymis
where does the blood supply to the testes come from?
Blood supply comes from the testicular arteries and testicular veins
What encloses nerver fibers, blood vessels, and lymphatics that supply the testes?
the spermatic cord
What produces androgens?
The interstitial (Leydig) cells outside the seminiferous tubules produce androgens.
What are the the external genitalia of the male?
the external genitalia of the male are the scrotum and the penis
What is the male copulatory organ?
What does the penis consist of?
the penis consists of the root and shaft that ends in the glans penis, prepuce, or foreskin, and the crura
What is the prepuce or forskin?
the cuff of loose skin covering the glans penis
What is a circumcision?
A circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis
What is the crura?
The proximal end surrounded by the ischocavernousus muscle; anchors penis to the pubic arch.
What is the makeup of the penis?
the penis is composed of the spongy urethra and 3 cylindrical bodies of erectile tissue (it is a spongy network of connective tissue and smooth muscle with vascular spaces)
What is an erection?
the erectile tissue fills with blood causing the penis to enlarge and become rigid
parts of the male duct system
epidiymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra
head of the epididymis
contains the efferent ductules
duct of the epididymis
microvilli (sterocilia) absorb testicular fluid and pass nutrients to stored sperm
enter the duct of the epididymis-slowly pass through and become motile
what happens to the epididymis during ejaculation
the epididymis contracts expelling sperm into the ductus deferens
location of the ductus deferens
passes through the inguinal canal
expands to form the ampulla and then joins the duct of the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct and propels sperm from the epididymis to the urethra
cutting and ligating the ductus deferens, which is a nearly 100% effective form of birth control
conveys both urine and semen @ different times
3 regions of the urethra
1 prostatic urethra, 2 membranous urethra, 3 spongy penile urethra
accessory gland of the male reproductive system; produces viscous alkaline seminal fluid; is 70% of volume of semen; joins the vas deferens to form the ejaculatory duct
contents of the viscous alkaline seminal fluid
fructose, ascorbic acid, coagulating enzyme (vesiculase) and prostiglandins
accessory gland of the male reproductive system; encircles part of the urethra inferior to the bladder; secretes a milky , slightly acid fluid
prostate fluid contains citrate, enzymes, and prostate-specific antigen; plays a role in the activation of sperm; enters the prostatic urethra during ejaculation
aka- Cowper's Glands; pea-sized glands inferior to the prostate; prior to ejaculation, produce a thick, clear mucus; lubricates the glans penis; neutralizes traces of acidic urine in the urethra
contains a mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions
contents of semen
contains nutrients (fructose), protects and activates sperm, and facilitates their movement
prostaglandins in semen
decrease the viscosity of mucous in the cervix; stimulates peristalsis in the uterus
Alkalinity of semen
neutralizes the acid in the male urethra and the female vagina; antibiotic chemicals destroy certain bacteria;clotting factors coagulate just after ejaculation, then fibrinolysin; only 2-5 ml of semen are ejaculated
the enlargement and stiffening of the penis from the engorgement of erectile tissue with blood; initiated by sexual stimuli including- touch and mechanical stimulation of the penis; erotic sights, sounds and smells; and can be induced or inhibited by emotions or higher mental activity
a fertilized egg is called a/an __ when the chromosomes of both parents have mingled to form a diploid set.
when the three primary germ layers have formed, an individual is at a stage of development called the __
For the first 8 weeks after ovulation, a conceptus depends primarily on __ nutrition.
A conceptus is anchored to the endometrium by rootlike outgrowths of the syncytiotrophoblast called ___
Most fetal blood in the pulmonary trunk follows a shunt to the aorta called the __ instead of circulating through the lungs.
Respiratory distress syndrom results from a deficiency of pulmonary __ in the lungs of a premature infant.
Any abnormality present at birth is called a _____.
Degenerative change in an organ resulting from aging is called __.
The yolk sac is a vestigial structure with no known function in humans.
Which term can be described as the process by which spermatozoa become capable of fertilizing and egg?
Which term describes the cells produced by cleavage of the zygote?
Which term can be described as any agent that causes anatomical birth defects?
Which term can be described as the results from an XO condition in the zygote?
Which term can be described as the syndrome in which senescence is greatly accelerated?
the ductus venosus
Most fetal blood bypasses the liver by way of a shunt called __
An XXY combination of sex chomomsomes produces an individual with
senescence of the sebaceous glands
The skin and hair become drier in old age because of
The embryonic membranes include all of the following except
zygote, cleavage, morula, trophoblast, embryo, fetus
Which of these lists the stages of prenatal development in the correct order?
The fine hair on the body of a 5-month-old fetus is
The neonatal period of life is considered to extend to an age of
The round ligament of the adult liver is a remnant of the __ of the fetus.
the accumulation of CO2 in the blood
During or immediately after birth, an infant is normally stimulated to breathe by
usually develop benign prostatic hyperplasia
Urine retention is a greater problem for elderly men that for elderly women because men
it consists of about 16 to 32 cells
When a developing individual arrives in the uterus
The fetal colon accumulates thick, tarry feces called
Which of the following is closest to the fetus?
An individual becomes a fetus at the end of __ weeks of gestation.
A sterile male with undeveloped testes, overdeveloped breasts, and unusually long arms and legs is most likely to have
12 to 24
In order for an egg to survive, it must be fertilized within __ hours of ovulation.
Which one of the below is a diploid (2n)?
Twins produced when a single egg is fertilized are called __ twins, and twins produced from two eggs that are ovulated are called __ twins.
The morula lies free in the uterine cavity fcor four to five days, At about 100 cells, the zona pellucida disintegrates and releases the conceptus. The stage is now called the
part of the placenta; the embryo
In the blastocyst, the trophoblast will become __, and the embroblast will become __.
Implantation begins about __ days after ovulation and is completed in about __ week (s).
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG); chorion
The trophoblast secretes __ and develops into a membrane called the __.
If the blastocyst implants in the uterine tube instead of the uterus, the pregnancy is called
14 to 15 weeks
In amniocentesis, a sample of amniotic fluid is removed, and the fetal cells are analyzed,. Over 20 congenital conditions can be identified by this procedure. Amniocentesis is best done during what time frame of pregnancy?
The epidermis, nervous system, pituitary, internal and internal ear are derived from the __.
The epithelia of the digestive tract, respiratory tract, urinary bladder, and accessory reproductive and digestive system glands are derived from __.
ductus venosus; ductus arteriosus
In the fetal circulation, the __ bypasses the liver, and the __ bypasses the lungs
A newborn infant is screened for this disorder, which prevents the individual from producing the amino acid tyrosine, a critical amino acid for the formation of melanin, EP, NE, thyroid hormones and dopamine.
The immune reponses of a neonate are weak. However, the mother supplies __ through the placenta and __ through the colostrum.
Jaundice is common in prenates, especially premature babies because of the buildup in the blood of
The release of an egg from the ovary is called __.
The constricted part of the uterus that protrudes into the vagina is called the __.
Attachment of the conceptus to the uterine wall is called __.
__ Is a hormone secreted by the ovary that selectively suppresses FSH secretion.
Follicles and oocytes develop during a portion of the ovarian cycle called the ___ phase.
In the luteal phase, the ovaries secrete mainly ___, which stimulates glycogen synthesis and mucus secretion in the uterus.
Hyperemesis gravidarum is a state of severe __ early in pregnancy.
Parturition is the process of__.
An adolescent girl's growth of axillary hair and apocrine glands is stimulated by androgens.
Most girls do not ovulate during the first year of menstration.
Estrogen is a hormone that increases the incidence of certain types of breast cancer.
A woman's blood cholesterol tends to rise after menopause.
Which term can be described as the site of fertilization?
Which term can be describes as the source of prolactin and lutinizing hormones?
Development of a girl's breasts at puberty is called
The second half of the menstral cycle is regulated largely by
Pregnancy tests are based on the detection of ___ in the urine.
the mons pubis
Which of these is not included in the female vestibule?
The__ glands of the female are homologus to the bulbourethral glands of the male.
The superior curvature of the uterus is called
Ovulation is triggered by:
All of the following processes are important in follicular development. Which one occurs first?
Which of these is a consequence of the ischemic phase of the uterine cycle?
Sterility may result from uncorrected __, or undescended testes.
Spermatozoa are produced in minute ducts called__.
Until ejaculation, most sperm are stored in the __.
About 30% of the semen is produced by the __, a medial gland that encloses part of the urethra.
The blood- testis barrier is formed by tight junctions between the __ cells of the testis.
A sperm penetrates an egg by means of enzymes from its __.
The testes and ovaries are collectively called the gametes.
The male scrotum is homologous to the female labia majora.
Sperm heads are embedded in the sustentacular cells until the spermatozoa are mature.
Which term can be described as the Embryonic precursor of the male reproductive tract?
The inability to produce __ would result in impotence.
Which term can be described as a male secondary sex characteristic?
Which term can be described as the cord that guides the descending testes into the fetal scrotum?
production of the larger gamete
When all sexually reproducing species of animals are considered, the one characteristic that most defines a female is __.
The genetic sex of a child is determined by __.
Which of the following is/are female secondary sex organ(s)?
causes regression of the parameonephric ducts
Mullerian-inhibiting factor __.
the Y chromosome
Testis-determining factor is found in or on __.
Which of the following is an androgen?
the efferent tubules
To get from the testis to the epididymis, sperm must pass through ___.
Men only have one ___ but two of all of the rest of these.
the pampiform plexus
The heat exchanger that prevents afferent blood from overheating the testes is__.
Mitochondria are found in the __ of the spermatozoon.
The foreskin of the penis is called __.
Until ejaculation, sperm are stored mainly in ___.
a primary spermatocyte
The cell in spermatogenesis that undergoes meosis I is __.
A spermatozoon secretes enzymes from its __ to penetrate the egg.
The energy for sperm motility comes from __.
__ is the accumulation of nitrogenous wastes in the blood.
Each kidney has one million or more functional units called __.
__ is a hormone that regulates sodium reabsorption by the distal convoluted tubule.
ADH antidiurethic hormone
__ is a hormone that regulates water permeability of the collecting duct.
Urine formation begins with the filtration of fluid from a spheroid capillary bed called the ___.
___ is a process in which the renal tubules remove wastes from the blood and add them to the tubular fluid.
Urine is conveyed from the kidney to the bladder by a tube called the ___.
The__ reflex involuntarily empties the bladder unless one consciously suppresses urination.
The __ apparatus monitors the composition and concentration of the tubular fluid and adjusts the glomular filtration rate.
The proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs about the same amount of water regardless of the body's state of hydration.
Urine is always hypertonic to the blood plasma.
The visceral layer of the glomular capsule is composed of podocytes.
Voluntary control over urination employs the external urinary sphincter.
podocyte foot process
Which term can be described as having spaces called glomerular filtration slits between them?
Which term can be described as a countercurrent multiplier?
Which term can be described as the weight of urine per milliliter relative to the weight of distilled water per milliliter?
Which term can be described as excessive urine output?
Which term can be described as the muscularis of the urinary bladder?
The most abundant nitrogenous waste of the blood is
Which is these is not part of a nephron?
Urine normally contains all of the following except ?
the renal pelvis
If we follow the ureter into the kidney, we find that the first structure to arise from it is
the vasa recta
The blood vessels of the renal medulla that run alongside that nephron loops are __.
the urinary bladder
The trigone is a triangular region of__.
There is one __ for each nephron.
the glomerular filtration rate
The total amount of fluid entering the capsular spaces of all nephrons in a given time is called
the proximal convoluted tubule
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by __.
sodium, potassium, and chloride ions but not water
The thick segment of the ascending limb of the nephron loop is permeable to __.
Kidne damage can cause __, the excretion of protein in the urine.
If not for the countercurrent multiplier, the kidneys could not produce ___.
afferent arteriole; efferent arteriole
Blood pressure in the glomerulus is unusuallu high compared to the other capillaries because the diameter of the ___ is greater that of the ___.
The first step leading to angiotensin II production is the secretion of __ by the kidneys.
vasoconstricion of the afferent arteriole
Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate?
Atrial natriuretic factor is secreted in response to __.
glomerular filtration rate
A realistic value for __ is about 180 L/day.
penicillin is removed from the blood by tubular secretion
The rate of renal clearance of penicillin is greater that the glomerular filtration rate. This suggests that __.
The kidneys secrete the hormone___, which stimulates RBC production.
stimulates the formation of angiontensin I, which ultimately increases blood pressure
The kidneys secrete the enzyme renin, which____.
t12 to L3; right
The kidneys are located at levels __ vertebrae, and the __ kidney is more inferior because of the space occupied by the liver above it.
papillary duct- minor calyx- major calyx- renal pelvis
Trace urine from the collecting duct of the nephron to the ureter.
distal convoluted tubule-DCT
This tubule has a simple cuboidal epithelium nearly devoid of microvilli.
afferent arteriole; efferent arteriole
The __ feeds into the glomerulus and the ___ drains the glomerulus.
the concentration gradient is maintained in the renal medulla by __ nephrons, which make up __ % of the nephrons
efferent; a smaller
tje glomerulus has the highest blood hydrostatic pressure of any capillary bed in the body because it is drained by the __ arteriole, which has __ diameter that the arteriole feeding the glomerulus.
Which molecule would you expect to have the most difficulty crossing the glomerular filtration membrane?
kidney trauma or infection
You found a high level of albumin in the urine. This was most likely caused by___.
The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is about __ mL/min.
renin; increase blood pressure
A low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) will cause the juxtaglomerular cells to release __, which will __.
The liquid contained within the cells is called ---.
Water that is chemically sythesized by the body is called a-- to distinguish it from ingested water.
The hypothalamus has a nucleus callsed the __ that stimulates water intake and inhibits salivation.
A local accumulation of interstitial fluid is called__.
Hyperkalemia is an abnormally high concentration of __ in the blood.
A chemical that converts a strong acid or base to a weak one and thus resists pH changes is called a/an __.
A blool pH below 7.35 is called ___.
An acid-base imbalance that the body cannot correct is said to be __.
About 2/3 's of the total water is intracellular.
The amount of water lost by way of the respiratory system is greater in cold weather than in hot weather.
Abnormal loss of protein in the urine can lead to edema.
sensible water loss = 1500 mL/day
Which term can be described as the average urine output?
water of oxidation 200mL/day
Which term can be described as the average production of metabolic water?
bicarbonate buffer system
Which term can be described as the buffers most responsible for stabilizing the pH of the blood?
phosphate buffer system
Which term can be described as the buffer in the renal tubules that supplements the action of bicarbonate ions?
Which term can be described as the result for an excess of bicarbonate ions?