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Atom

basic unit of matter

Nucleus

center of atom

electron

negative charged particle

element

substance of atom

isotopes

One of two or more atoms having the same atomic number but different mass numbers.

Compound

composed of two or more parts, elements, or ingredients

Ionic Bond

the electrostatic bond between two ions formed through the transfer of one or more electrons.

Ions

An atom or a group of atoms that has acquired a net electric charge by gaining or losing one or more electrons

Covalent bond

the bond formed by the sharing of a pair of electrons by two atoms.

Molecule

the smallest physical unit of an element or compound, consisting of one or more like atoms in an element and two or more different atoms in a compound.

Van Der Waals forces

weak, nonspecific forces between molecules.

Cohesion

the molecular force between particles within a body or substance that acts to unite them

Adhesion

attraction between molecules of different substance

Mixture

when 2 or more elements/compounds are physically mixed together but not chemically combined

Solution

state of being dissolved.

Solute

A substance that is dissolved in another substance (a solvent), forming a solution.

Solvent

a substance that dissolves another to form a solution: Water is a solvent for sugar.

Suspension

mixture of water and nondissolved materials

pH scale

provides a measure on a scale from 0 to 14 of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution (where 7 is neutral and greater than 7 is more basic and less than 7 is more acidic);

Acid

compound that forms hydrogen ions in solution

Base

compound that produces hydroxide ions in solution

Buffers

weak acids/base that can react with strong acids and bases and prevents strong sharp sudden changes

Monomers

small units that can join together with other small units to form polymers

polymers

large compound formed from combinations of many monomers

Carbohydrates

Compounds made up ofcarbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms

Monosaccarides

single sugar molecules

Polysaccarides

Large macromolecules formed from monosaccrides

Lipids

Made from carbon and hydrogen atoms. includes fats, oils and waxes

nucleic acids

macromollecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.

nucleotides

monomers of nucleic acids made up of 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base

proteins

contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen

amino acids

compound with an amino group

chemical reaction

process that changes one set of chemicals into anther set of chemicals

reactants

element of compound that enters into a chemical reaction

products

element or compound produced by a chemical reaction

activation energy

energy needed to get a reaction started

catalyst

substnances that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

enzymes

protein that acts as a biological catalyst

substrates

reactant of an enzym-catalyzed reaction

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