What are endocrine glands?
Small organs located throughout the body that secrete hormones.
What are hormones?
Chemical messengers that transfer information and instructions from one set of cells to another.
What is the nervous system?
Body system that controls faster processes like breathing and body movement.
What is the endocrine system?
Body system that controls slower processes like cell growth.
What is the negative feedback system?
The system that maintains a certain amount of any type of hormone in the bloodstream by sending messages to turn off the production of that particular hormone when the level reaches a certain point.
What is the hypothalamus?
A collection of specialized cells located in the lower central part of the brain that is the main link between the endocrine and nervous systems.
What is the pituitary gland?
The "master gland" located at the base of the brain just beneath the hypothalamus is considered the most important part of the endocrine system because it makes hormones that control several other endocrine glands.
What are the two parts of the pituitary gland?
The anterior lobe and the posterior lobe.
What is the anterior lobe?
The part of the pituitary gland that regulates the activity of the thyroid, adrenals, and reproductive glands.
What is the posterior lobe?
The part of the pituitary gland that controls the balance of water in the body and triggers the contractions of the uterus in a woman having a baby.
What are the adrenal glands?
The two triangular glands that lie on top of each kidney.
What is the pineal gland?
A gland located in the middle of the brain that secretes melatonin, a hormone that helps regulate sleep patterns.
What are the two parts of the adrenal gland?
The adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla.
What is the adrenal cortex?
The outer part of the adrenal gland which produces hormones called corticosteroids that influence or regulate salt and water balance in the body, the body's response to stress, metabolism, the immune system, and sexual development and function.
What is the adrenal medulla?
The inner part of the adrenal gland that produces catecholamines, like epinephrine (adrenaline), which increase blood pressure and heart rate when the body experiences stress.
What is the thyroid?
The gland located in the front part of the lower neck and shaped like a bow tie or butterfly which produces the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine that, in turn, control the rate at which cells burn fuels from food to produce energy.
What are the parathyroids?
Four tiny glands that function together which regulate the level of calcium in the blood.
What is the importance of thyroid hormones?
They contribute to bone growth and development and play a key role in the development of the brain and nervous system.
What is thyrotropin?
A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that controls the production and release of thyroid hormones.
What is high metabolism?
An increase in the rate cells burn fuels from food to produce energy due to excessive amounts of thyroid hormone in the bloodstream.
What are the male and female reproductive glands?
The gonads, which are called testes in males and ovaries in females.
What are the functions of the testes?
They secrete hormones called androgens the most important of which is testosterone. These hormones lead to changes during puberty like penis development, body growth, deepening voice, growth in facial and pubic hair, and production of sperm.
What are the functions of the ovaries?
They produce eggs and secrete the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen controls changes that take place during puberty like breast growth, fat accumulation around the hips and thighs, and body growth, regulates the menstrual cycle, and plays a role in pregnancy.
What is the pancreas?
The gland which produces insulin and glucagon which work together to maintain a steady level of glucose, or sugar, in the blood and to keep the body supplied with fuel to produce and maintain stores of energy.
What are some non-endocrine organs that produce and secrete hormones?
The brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, and skin.