crop rotation

The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.

enclosure

one of the fenced-in or hedged-in fields created by wealthy British landowners on land that was formerly worked by village farmers.

textile industry

Industries involved in the reproduction and manufacturing of clothing and cloth

tenement

multistory building divided into crowded apartments

urbanization

the movement of people from rural areas to cities

labor union

an organization that seeks to increase the wages and improve the working conditions of its members

Progressive Movement

reform effort, generally centered in urban areas and begun in the early 1900s, whose aims included returning control of the government to the people, restoring economic opportunities, and correcting injustices in American life.

socialism

A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.

capitalism

an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit

communism

an economic system in which all means of production—land, mines, factories, railroads, and businesses—are owned by the people, private property does not exist, and all goods and services are shared equally.

monopoly

total control of a type of industry by one person or one company

factory

place in which workers and machines are brought together to produce large quantities of goods

James Watt

developed the Steam Engine

coal

a black mineral from the earth that can be burned for fuel

urban

having to do with cities

rural

relating to the country or farming

plague

a deadly disease that spreads rapidly from person to person

pollution

the act of contaminating or polluting

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