Skeletal System Ch. 7-9

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functions of bone

-support
-protection
-movement
-storage
-hematopoiesis

storage

-fat
-bone matrix: resevoir of minerals (calcium & phosphorus)

bone cells

-3 types: osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes

osteoblast

-bone forming cells
-secretes asteoid

asteoid

-organic matrix, made of hydroxyapatites
-gives bone strength

osteoclast

-bone destroying cells

osteocyte

-spider shaped, mature bone cells
-surrounded by matrix, embedded in lacunae

bone classification

-shape: long, flat, short, irregular
-proportion of compact & spongy bone they contain

parts of long bone

-diaphysis
-epiphysis
-articular cartilage
-periosteum
-medullary cavity
-endosteum

diaphysis

-shaft of lone bone, hollow
-contains yellow marrow in adults (found in medullary cavity)

epiphysis

-ends of long bone
-filled with red marrow
-separated from diaphysis by epiphyseal plate (growth plate)

articular cartilage

-glassy textured
-cushions ends of bone
-absorbs stress during joint movement

periosteum

-outer membrane of diaphysis
-dense, irregular CT
-essential for bone cell survival

medullary cavity

-hollow space in diaphysis
-filled with yellow marrow

endosteum

-membrane, lines medullary cavity
-contains osteoblasts & osteoclasts

osteon

-aka Haverisan Systems
-structural unit of compact bone

parts of osteon

-lamellae
-lacunae
-canaliculi
-Haversian Canals
-Volkmann's Canals

lamellae

-layers of calcified matrix

lacunae

-"Little Lakes"
-small spaces containing fluid (contains osteocytes)

canaliculi

-ultra small canals coming from lacunae, connects to Haversian Canals

Haversian Canals

-extend lengthwise through Haversian system
-contains blood vessels & nerves

Volkmann's Canals

-extend transversely to Haversian canals
-connects vascular & nerve supply to periosteum

spongy (cancellous) bone

-no osteons
-contains trabeculae: needle-like
-open cavities filled with red marrow

bone marrow

-connective tissue (myeloid tissue)
-in medullary cavities & spaces of spongy bone
-2 types: red marrow and yellow marrow

red marrow

-produces red blood cells
-in most bones of infants/children
-adults: in vertebrae, ribs, ends of humerus & femur, pelvis

yellow marrow

-saturated with fat, once was red marrow

osteogenesis

-bone development

fontanels

-soft spots in fetus and newborns
-incomplete ossifciation (cartilage into bone)

development of bone

-growth occurs in long bones (male: until 25)
-puberty changes bone structures (female: hips widen)
-bone growth and destruction controlled by PTH and Calcitonin

PTH

-Parathyroid hormon
-detects levels of Ca
-too low: stimulates osteoclasts to digest bone matrix releasing Ca into blood

Calcitonin

-produced by thyroid
-stimulates osteoblasts to make bone

homeostasis of bone growth

-depends on balance between bone growth and bone destruction

fractures

-treated by reduction (realignment of broken ends

close reductions

-bone coaxed by into place by physician

open reductions

-requires surgery, wires, pins, plates

cast / traction

-placed to immobilize and allow healing to begin

osteoporosis

-rate of bone breakdown surpases rate of bone formation
-causes bones to weaken
-common in post-menopausal women

osteomalacia

-in adults: deficiency of vitamin D & calcium

rickets

-in children: deficiency of vitamin D & calcium

Paget's disease

-excessive & abnormal bone redmodeling in older adults

slipped disc

-protrusion of vertebral disc posteriorly
-pressed on spinal nerves

scoliosis

-lateral; thoracic
-abnormal curvature of spine

kyphosis

-dorsally; thoracic
-hunchback

lordis

-lumbar
-swayback

whiplash

-odontoid process of axis pushed into spinal cord or brainstem

sprains

-forcible stretching, wrenching, twisting, tearing of joint ligaments

cartilage injuries

-from excessive twisting or high pressure

dislocations

-displacement of articular surfaces

bursitis & tendonitis

-inflammation of burca & tendon sheaths

arthritis

-auto-immune
-joint inflammation/degeneration with stiffness, pain, swelling
-types: osteoarthritis, rheumoid arthritis, gouty arthritis

osteoarthritis

-deterioration of articular cartilage & spur formation
-common in aged people
-weight bearing joints most affected

rheumatoid arthritis

-most crippling, autoimmune disease
-severve inflammation of joints

gouty arthritis

-"The Gout"
-urate salt crystals in soft joint tissues
-severe pain & discomfort

human skeleton

-206 bones (20% of body mass)
-divided into axial & appendicular skeleton

axial skeleton

-skull, vertebral column, rib cage (80 bones total)

skull (22 bones)

-cranial, facial, paranasal sinuses, hyoid bone

cranial (8 bones)

-parietals, temporals, frontals, occipital, ethmoid, sphenoid, immovable sutures

facial (14 bones)

-maxillae, zygomatics, nasals, lacrimals, palatines, inferior conchae, mandible vomer & mandible (only movable facial bone)

paranasal sinuses

-frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary

hyoid bone

-tongue, muscles of pharynx & larynx
-larynx: only bone in body doesn't articulate with another bone

vertebral column

-7 cervical
-12 thoracic
-5 lumbar
-4 coccyx
-sacrum, fibrocartilage discs, curvature

vertebral curvature

-balance, strength, support
-primary curves: thoracic and sacral
-secondary curves: cervical & lumbar

bony thorax

-rib cage
-12 pairs (males & females)
-true ribs, false ribs, floating ribs

true ribs

-first 7 pairs
-joins coastal cartilage to sternum

false ribs

-last 5 pairs
-3 pairs joins cartilage to sternum

floating ribs

-last 2 pairs of false ribs
-not attachment

appendicular skeleton

-pectoral girdle
-pelvis girdle

pectoral girdle

-upper extremity
-clavicles (most frequently broken)
-scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges

pelvis girdle

-lower extremity
-ossa coxae, ilium, ischium, pubis, & lower limbs

pubis

-male pelvis: larger, deep, & narrow, heavier
-female pelvis: shallow, wider, birth canal

lower limbs

-femur, tibia, fibula, patella, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges

joints

-where bones meet (articulations)
-classified by structure: fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial

fibrous

-immovable, no joint cavity
-ex: sutures of skull

cartilaginous

-slightly movable
-lacks joint cavity, bones united by cartilage
-ex: epiphyseal disc, coastal cartilage connect ribs to sternum

synovial

-freely movable
-articulating bones separated by a fluid containing joint cavity
-ex: hip, shoulder

synovial fluid

-secreted by synovial membrane
-viscous, egg-white consistency
-made of hyaluronic acid

types of synovial joints (6)

-plane: intercarpal & intertarsal
-hinge: elbow & knee
-pivot: proximal radioulnar joint, joint between atlas/axis
-condyloid:metacarpophalangeal & radiocarpal joints
-saddle: carpometacarpal joint of thumb
-ball & socket: shoulder & hip

movement of bones

-skeletal muscle contracts, insertion moves towards origin

insertion

-movable attachment of muscle to bone
-moves toward its origin

origin

-immovable attachment of muscle to bone

common types of movement (3)

-gliding
-rotating
-angular

rotating

-turning movement of bone around its axis
-ex: first 2 cervical vertebrae, hip, shoulder

angular

-increase/decrease angle between 2 bones

types of angular joints (5)

-flexion
-extension
-abduction
-adduction
-circumduction

flexion

-bending, decreases angle of joint
-ex: bending knee from straight to angled

extension

-increases angle between articulating bones
-ex: straightening knee

abduction

-moving away from midline
-ex: raising arm up

adduction

-move toward midline
-lowering raised arm

circumduction

-angular movemnts of flexion, abduction, adduction, & extension to describe cone in space
-ex: saddle joint of thumb

special movements (8)

-supination & pronation
-inversion & eversion
-protraction & retraction
-elevation & depression

supination

-movements of radius around ulna
-turn palm forward so radius/ulna are not crossed

pronation

-movements of radius around ulna
-palm moved to a posterior position

inversion

-special movement of foot
-sole turned medially

eversion

-special movement of foot
-sole faces laterally

protraction

-anterior (forward) movement
-jut mandible forward

retraction

-posterior movement
-returns protracted bone/body part to original position

elevation

-lifting/moving superiorly along frontal plane
-scapulae elevated when you shrug your shoulders

depression

-elevated part move downward to original position
-unshrug shoulder

bone markings reveals

-site of muscle attachment
-points of articulation (joint)
-sites of blood vessels & nerve passage

process/projections

-sites of muscle attachment
-tuberosity, crest, trochanter, line, tubercle, epicondyle

tuberosity

-roughened, large, rounded process

crest

-prominent ridge

trochanter

-very large, blunt, irregular shaped process

line

-narrow ridge
-less prominent than crest

tubercle

-small, rounded process

epicondyle

-raised area above condyle

projections that form articulations

-head
-facet
-condyle
-ramus

head

-bony extension from a narrow neck

facet

-smooth articular surface

condyle

rounded articular projection

ramus

-armlike bar, curved portion of bone

depressions and openings

-allow blood vessels, nerves, & lymphatic vessels to pass through
-meatus, sinus, fossa, groove, fissure, foramen

meatus

-canal-like passageway

sinus

-cavity within bone
-mucus membrane lined
-air-filled

fossa

-shallow, basin-like depression

groove

-furrow

fissure

-narrow slit-like opening for blood vessels & nerves

foramen

-round/oval hole for vessels & nerves

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