a change in allele frequencies over time.
section of DNA instructing how to produce a trait.
one variant of a gene (several may exist).
in the brain in addition to the neurons there are equal numbers of non-neuronal cells, called glial cells, that function like a support staff to protect, insulate, and nourish the neurons.
responsible for generating most of the movement we see in animals. Attach to bones and controlled by individual neurons attached to each muscle fiber.
causes the heart to pump blood through the body.
not under conscious control an dis able to contract without stimulation from the nervous system, surrounds blood vessels and many internal organs. Slower contractions gradually move blood food, or other substances
mutation in gametes that can be passed on to children.
cells in your body that are possibly essential to you, but don't get passed on to children.
when you have a trait, its heritable, there are different versions of it, and differential reproductive success based on that trait.
An alteration in the base-pair sequence of an individual's DNA; may arise spontaneously or following exposure to a mutagen.
physical movement of people from one area to another, causing a change in allele frequencies.
A random change in allele frequencies. If you have a one out of four chance of inheriting a certain allele (think eye color), it randomly selects for a certain trait, and then changes in high concentration in the population.
The process by which natural selection favors traits, such as ornaments or fighting behavior, that vie an advantage to individuals of one sex in attracting mating partners.
Behaviors that are learned easily by all, or nearly all, individual species.
Norm of Reaction
the set of all phenotypic expressions possible for a given genotype if raised under all possible different environmental conditions.
Mendel's First Law
(Law of Segregation) During the formation of gametes, the two alleles for a gene separate, so that half the gametes carry one allele, and half of the gametes carry the other.
The region of the vertebrate brain that includes the medulla, pons, and cerebellum.
Part of the brainstem; a sensory integration and relay center through which most of the sensory information and motor neuron connections coming into and out of the brain pass.
The largest region of the vertebrate brain; includes two control and relay structures, the thalamus and hypothalamus, and the cerebrum.
Regulates speech production, motor control, smell, problem solving, and many other aspects of personality. (Front)
Perceives and processes auditory and visual sensations; important in pattern recognition and language comprehension. (Sides)
Receives and processes visual information. (Back of head)
Receives and perceives touch and pressure sensations; important to sensory integration. (Behind Frontal)
In the brain, the broad, thick band of neurons connecting the left hemisphere to the right hemisphere.
A relative measure of the reproductive output of an individual with a given phenotype compared with the reproductive output of individuals with alternative phenotypes.
A behavior that comes at a cost to the individual performing it and benefits another.
A chemical signal that responds to environmental variables, found in both plants and animals. In plants, hormones are produced in various locations and may have their effect in that location or may be transported to another part of the plant to regulate the plant's activities. In animals, hormones are usually secreted by endocrine glands and are transported by the bloodstream to target cells as part of an internal communication and regulation system. They are secreted from pineal, hypothalamus, ovaries, pituitary, adrenal, pancreas, testes.
Stress signals => fight or flight response! 1) Makes Glucose Available 2) Breaks down proteins in skeletal muscle to give you fuel 3)Supresses the immune system a bit.
Sense danger. 1)Increase heart rate and rate/volume of hearbeat 2)increase glycogen breakdown - need lots of sugar 3)dilate bronchioles in lungs - need lots of oxygen.
1) Female reproductive system 2)mood and behavior
1) object memory 2) improves memory, concentration, promotes brain cell growth 3) mating and fertility 4)increasing estrogen improves your mood 5)causes cells to divide => may lead to cancer
1)male reproductive system 2)hair growth, low voice, muslce mass 3)causes tissue to divide => muscle growth, also may lead to cancer 4) mood and behavior. Example: song bird territories (high RS, short lives) Example: tennis or chess winners vs. losers.
A chemical of the nervous system that transmits signals to adjacent cells.
An excitatory Neurotransmitter that stimulates muscles to contract.
An excitatory Neurotransmitter that is related to muscle movement and coordination, as well as one of the body's chief "happiness" neurotransmitterss. When released in the brain, it is associated with feelings of intense pleasure.
An inhibitory Neurotransmitter which can help you relax, binds to the receptors and makes you tired, reduces anxiety. This is mimicked by Cocaine.
These are SSRIs which are inhibitory Nuerotransmitters that calm you down, mellow you out, and tend to make you happier. They are generally antidepressants like Prozac.
An inhibitory neurotransmitter that reduces pain sensation and increases euphoria. Generally felt by marathon runners; decreases pain because at some point your body realizes that you have received the pain message and shuts down the long term pain feeling. Tends to reduce the feeling. Mimicked in heroine.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
Antidepressant medications (including Prozac and Soloft) that block serotonin from being reabsorbed and recycled by the cells (neurons) that release it, prolonging its effect. The net result for the individual is generally an elevated mood, because of serotonin's prolonged stay in the synapse.
VNTRs (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats)
sections of DNA in which a certain sequence of base pairs is repeated a certain number of times. The number of times the sequence is repeated will vary among individuals. They do not code for protein, and are referred to as alleles in the sense that the number of repeats for a given one is the allele of that one.
RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms)
Use a restiction enzyme to cut the region of DNA that surrounds VNTRs. This will leave you with a sample of different VNTRs.
energy storage. 9 kcal/g. Used in membranes and hormones. Not water soluble. Includes fats, phospholipids, and steroids.
tails saturated with hydrogens. Stable, solid at room temperatures, more easily stored in body (less healthy)
hydrogens lost due to double bonds in tails; can't pack as closely. Unstable, liquid at room temp, and healthier.
fuel, 4 kcal/g, Glucose (simple sugar broken down quickly), Starch (complex carbohydrate, requires more energy to break down), Cellulose (Complex carbohydrate that humans cannot break down (fiber))
build cells and tissues, 4kcal/g, made of amino acids (20 total acids), the human body can make 12/20 of the amino acids (the other 8 we need to eat).
organic molecules necessary for biological processes. Water: B, C. Fat: A, D, E, K.
inorganic molecules necessary for biological processes. Ca, P, K, Na, Cl.
the location of the gene on the strand of DNA.
term used to describe undeveloped, or under developed, offspring.
term to describe muscles and gland as part of the nervous system.
Central Nervous System
Brain and Spinal Cord
an organisms perception of the world around them
(acid) mimics serotonin
Increases serotonin production. Blocks serotonin re-uptake.Permanently damages serotonin producing cells in cerebral cortex (used in learning) and hippocampus (used for memory).
Stimulates dopamine and serotonin release. Get massive amounts of both.
blocks calcium channels from opening. Neurons can't fire. Muscles become paralyzed. Stops acetylcholine vesicles from releasing into the pre-synaptic cleft.
mimics an opiod neurotransmitter in pain neurons, blocking their function.
composed of ethenol, and it is always the same molecule.
a small molecules that is in all alcohol composed of two carbons, an oxygen, and six hydrogens.
breaks down Ethanol into Acetaldehyde
Broken down by Aldehyde Dehydrogenase
Breaks down acetaldehyde into acetic acid.
the end result of alcohol break down that can be excreted in urine.
a chemical produced as a by-product of cellular metabolism. It is like "cellular Exhaust." Over the course of a day, it builds up in brain synapses, and as they get filled up, they cause ion channels to fill, and less brain activity. Like a brake to brain activity; reabsorbed when you sleep.
Nodes of Ranvier
gaps in the Myelin sheath that allows for the pass through Na+
monogamous -> switch -> monogamous -> switch
males and females look different
modified dendrites that sense smells and taste.
modified dedrites that sense vision.
modified dendritest that sense hearing and touch.
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
inhibit the enzyme, Monoamine Oxidase that breaks down dopamine.
transmission of information by extra-cellular means (i.e. not genetic information present in sperm or eggs)
some things really are innate and can't be overridden by learning, e.g. nauseau is associated with food/liquid ingestion, or fat tastes.
alter our behavior in ways that will benefit our genes.
progress towards being better than everyone else. Just like reproductive success is the number of babies relative to others, happiness is how good you're doing relative to others or the alternative.
what people tell you is often not always true. Instead of asking, look at their behavior.
mistake people make with thinking that natural is good and fake is bad.
the linked, short-term form of sugar storage that holds sugars for later use. Long-term storage is as fat.
one of the four types of biological macromolecules, the nucleic acids DNA and RNA store genetic information in unique sequences of nucleotides.
fats that have three fatty acids linked to the glycerol molecule.
offspring do not show the traits of either parent.
offspring shot traits of both parents.
transmission of information by extra cellular means.
physical cause of something
the evolutionary cause of something.