← Water, Electrolytes, Acid-Base Balance Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All What does intracellular mean? Inside cells. What does extracellular mean? Plasma. lymph, interstitial or inter cellular. What happens to electrolytes in water? They dissociate in water. cations + and anions - What are mEq and How are mg converted to mEq? Millequivalents-- what electrolytes are measure by. mEq= (mg/atomic wt)(valence) What are the atomic wts of Na, K, and Ca? Na=23; K=39; Ca= 40 What are the valences of Na, K, Ca? Na= 1; K= 1; Ca= 2. What is the major cation in the extracellular fluid? Sodium. What percentage of NaCl is Na? 40%. How many gm of Na does one tsp of NaCl contain? one tsp salt= 6 gm NaCl= 2.4 gm Na or 2400 mg Na What is the major cation in intracellular fluid? Potassium. What is osmosis? Fluid moving from less to more concentrated side of a membrane. What is diffusion? Particles move from more to less concentrated side of a membrane. What does protein do to blood vessels? Protein exerts colloidal pressure to blood vessels. When Alb drops, the pressure drops causing fluid to leak out= edema. Water is moving from extracellular (plasma) into interstitial space(btw and around cells). What does low serum protein lead to? Edema and ascites. Why does dehydration occur? Due to decreased water intake, heavy solute load, or excessive water output. What happens to labs when a pt is dehydrated? Most labs increase, esp BUN. What is the BEST assessment parameter for fluid status? Serum sodium. Normal= 136-145 mEq/l What is hypernatremia? Excess salt-- indicates dehyrdation. What is hyponatremia? Lack of salt-- indicates over-hydration. How much water is lost through insensible losses? One liter.