Computing

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most computer __ takes place in a component called the CPU

processing

when talking about computers, the CPU (___) is synomous with the silicon chip known as the ___, which is programmed to perform various tasks on the data it receives

(Central Processing Unit), microprocessor

The CPU consists of the control unit, the arithmetic/logic unit (ALU), and the ___ (high-speed storage areas)

registers

The ALU is an area of the CPU optimized to handle math operations (+, -) as well as ___ comparisons.

logic

Input, output, and ___ equiptment that can be added to a computer to enhance its functionality are called peripheral devices

storage (a typical computer includes the system and a variety of input,output, and storage devices

An __ slot is a slot on the motherboard where the user can plug in an expansion card.

expansion

Expansion slots allow for plug in of expansion cards for additional memory or control of peripheral devices. Common expansion cards include ___ cards, graphic cards, and memory cards. Most PC computers include 4 to 8 expansion slots.

network

Flash memory drives plug into computers' ___ ports and have memory capacities of up to several gigabytes.

USB

When plugged into a USB port, flash memory drives show up as an ____ drive and are an convenient way to transport and transfer data.

external

____ Memory chips contain fixed computer start-up instructions, are loaded at the factory, and are non-volatile.

Read-Only

ROM chips contain memory that is non-volatile, meaning: ______. The information on a ROM cannot be altered by the ___

the data is not lost when the computer is turned off. (user)

With ____ memory, free hard disk space is used to extend the capacity of the RAM.

virtual.

Virtual memory uses the hard disk to mimic primary storage (RAM). If a program exceeds its available RAM, the __________________ can use an area of hard disk called virtual memory to store parts of data files or programs until needed, thereby gaining almost unlimited memory capacity.

operating system

Computer ____ temporarily stores instructions and data that the processor is likely to use frequently.

cache

Cache is lost when the power is turned off. Examples of cache include L1, L2, and L3. In all cases, cache is storage located ____ to the processor than RAM, and therefore can be accessed much more quickly. Cache speeds up ___.

closer; processing

The contents of volatile memory, which includes ___, are lost when the power is turned off.

RAM (random-access memory)

The computer's main memory typically consists of high-speed ___, which stores instructions and data.

RAM

RAM, which stands for Random Access Memory, stores ____ data which is waiting to be stored, processed, or output, and this data is lost if the computer is turned off. RAM usually consists of several circuit boards (chips) that plug directly into the computer's system board.

temporary

One reason a tape takes longer to access than a ___ drive is that a tape uses sequential address, while a ____ drive is a ____ ____ device.

hard; random access (allows it to go directly to the requested data)

A drive using ______ address retrieves data starting at the beginning of the drive and reads until it reaches the required data.

sequential

Examples of random access storage include computer ___ disk drives, RAM, ___ drives, ___ drives and CD-ROM drives.

hard, flash, floppy

A kilobyte is a unit of measurment equalling ___ bytes of data.

1024

A megabye equals _____ bytes.

one million

A gigabye equals roughly ____ bytes.

one billion

Using a technology called _____, the processor can start executing an instruction before the previous instruction completes. This can enhance computer performance.

pipelining

With ____ processing, the CPU must complete all steps in the instruction cycle before it begins to execute the next instruction.

serial

A unit of measure equalling one ____ digit is a bit. This is the smallest unit a data a system can handle.

binary (in contrast to a base 10 system, meaning that we have 10 digits to choose from when we are expressing a number (i.e. 0 through 9). A computer uses a binary system (base 2). That means that it only has 2 digits to choose from (i.e. 0 and 1).)

The number of bits limits how big of a number can be expressed: 2^n (n being the number of ___)

bits (For example, the largest number an 8-bit variable can hold is 255 (28 equals 256, but a computer starts at 0, so it can express anywhere from 0 through 255). Note that this is why, for instance, an 8 bit video card is limited to displaying 256 colors.)

One byte is _ bits.

8

A computer's ___ size is the number of bits that the processor may process at any one time.

word

The more bits in a word, the ____ the computer. Examples of word size in modern computers include 16, 32, and 64 bits.

faster

A computer with a 64 bit word size will transfer data within the microprocessor at _ bytes at a time.

8

A device driver is system software used by the computer to control ____ devices

peripheral

Device drivers refer to software that allows a peripheral device to ___ with the computer. They are small programs which run in the background and are used by devices such as modems, storage devices, mice, keyboards, monitors, printers, sound cards, network cards.

communicate

The series of events which takes place in a set order and at specified intervals, that occurs when the processor retrieves an instruction from storage and executes it, is called the _____ cycle.

instruction or machine

Fetch, ___, execute, and store are the four basic operations of the machine cycle.

decode

For every software _____, the __ control unit carries out four basic operations known as the machine cycle

instruction, CPU

When a file is saved to disk, it isn't always saved in adjacent sectors; in other words, the data making up the file is spread out over the hard drive. This is called ____, and it slows down file retrieval.

fragmentation (stored data is scattered across noncontiguous sectors)

By using a defragmentation utility, files on a disk are rearranged so that they are stored in __ clusters

contiguous (improved disk drive performance by helping the computer operate more efficiently)

____ software detects and corrects certain types of common problems on hard disks, floppies, and CDs. It also searches for and removes unnecessary files (temp files).

Disk scanner

File _____ is a method of removing repetitive elements of a file causing the file to require less storage space and less time to transmit.

compression

_____ is used to restore the file to its original condition by replacing the repeated patterns that were removed during file compression.

decompression

Multiple files which have been consolidated into one file and compressed to reduce size and download time are said to be ____.

zipped

Zipped files are unzipped as part of the _____ process

installation

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