A&P II chapter 26 - matching

55 terms by ebellis

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electrolytes

dissociate in water

nonelectrolytes

do not dissociate in water

extracellular

the fluid compartments outside the cell

intracellular

fluid compartments located within the cell

interstitial

spaces between the cells

hypermagnesemia

magnesium excess

hypocalcemia

calcium depletion

hypernatremia

sodium excess

hyperkalemia

potassium excess

hyponatremia

sodium depletion

edema

an atypical accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space

hypoproteinemia

a condition of unusuallu low levels of plasma proteins resulting in tissue edema

Addison's Disease

A disorder entailing deficient mineralocorticoid hormone production by the adrenal cortex

alderosterone

Regulates sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid

osmoreceptors

Special neurons in the hypothalmus that sense the ECF solute concentration and trigger or inhibit ADH release from the posterior pituitary gland

blood plasma

Sodium ions are highest in

intracellular fluid

Potassium ions are highest in

interstitial fluid

Bicarbonate ions are highest in

intracellular fluid

Proteins are highest in

False

Adipose tissue is one of the most hydrated of all tissues in the human body.

false

The most abundant cation in intracellular fluid is sodium.

true

Electrolytes determine most of the chemical and physical reactions of the body.

false

Solutes, regardless of size, are able to move freely between compartments because water carries them along the osmotic gradients.

true

The thirst center in the brain is located in the hypothalmus.

true

Dehydration can be caused by endocrine disturbances such as diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus.

false

It is impossible to overhydrate because people need as much water as they can drink to carry out ordinary body functions.

true

Water imbalance, in which output exceeds intake, causing an imbalance in body fluids, is termed dehydration.

true

Salts are lost from the body in perspiration, feces and urine.

false

Hypoproteinemia reflects a condition of unusuallu high levels of plasma proteins and causes tissue edema.

true

While the sodium content of the body may be altered, its condentration in the ECF remains stable because of immediate adjustments in water volume.

true

Sodium is pivotal to fluid and electrolyte balance and to the homeostasis of all body systems.

true

When aldersterone release is inhibited, sodium reabsorbtion cannot occur beyond the collecting tube.

true

Aldosterone stimulates the reabsorbtion of sodium while enhancing potassium secretion.

true

Pressure diuresis decreases blood volume and blood pressure.

false

Aldosterone is secreted in reponse to low extracellular potassium.

false

Addison's Disease is a disorder resulting from a viral infection

true

The main way the kidney regulates potassium ions is to excrete them.

false

Atrial natriuretic peptide hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasodialation and potassium and water retention.

true

Premenstral edema may be due to enhanced reabsorption of sodium chloride.

true

Heavy consumption of salt substitutes high in potassium can present a serious clinical problem when aldosterone release is not normal,

false

Hypercalcemia causes muscle tetany.

false

The two hormones responsible for the regulation of calcium ar pituitary hormone and calcitonin.

false

Calcitonin targets the bones and causes the release of calcium are the pituitary hormone and calcitionin.

false

Calcitonin targets thevones andvauses the release of calcium from storage when serum levels are low.

true

The normal pH of blood is 7.4.

true

Most acidic substances (hydrogen ions) originate as by-products of cellular metabolism.

true

Weak acids are able to act as chemical buffering systems for the body because they partially dissociate.

true

the phosphate buffer system is relatively unimportant for buffering blood plasma.

true

The single most important blood buffer system is the bicarbonate buffer system.

true

One of the most powerful and plentiful sources of buffers is the protein buffer system.

true

As ventilation increases and more carbon dioxide is removed from the blood, the hydrogen ion concentration of the blood decreases.

false

Regulation of the acid-base system is accomplished mainly through respiratory control, and the kidneys also plan a small role.

false

Severe damafe to the respiratory system rarely will result in acid-base imbalances.

true

Respiratory acidiosis results when lungs are obstructed and gas exchange is inefficient.

true

Prolonged hyperventilation can cause alkalosis.

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