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Exam 2 covering ch. 4 & 5

packaging (histones) (these are the types: channel, electron transport, reception (receptor proteins), & recognition)

The proteins of the plasma membrane are in large part responsible for the cell's ability to interact with its environment. They are of the following types except

potassium ion

Which of the following molecules is least likely to cross a cellular membrane by simple diffusion?

amyloplasts

Plants store starch in

450x

What is the total magnification of a chloroplast viewed with a 10x ocular lens and a 45x objective lens?

cyan bacteria

The largest of the prokaryotes are the ____, also called the blue-green algae.

3 sodium ions leave and 2 potassium ions enter

In a single sodium-potassium pump cycle, ATP is used up with the result that

False

Nuclei were readily visible in the prepared slides of the cyan bacteria Oscillatoria and Gloeocapsa.

an ocular micrometer

Your microscope contains ____ which allows you to determine the size of magnified objects you are viewing.

endocytosis

Cell-walled organisms cannot carry out

Gram staining

A very common method of distinguishing the bacteria takes advantage of the thickness of the peptidoglycan layer in the cell wall. This method of differential staining of cells is called.

micrometers

Bacteria are generally 1 to 2 ____ thick

"This tissue exports proteins to other areas of the body"

A cytologist is examining a tissue under an electron microscope. He notices in particular that the endoplasmic reticulum of each cell is extremely rough in appearance and of course knows that the rough appearance is because of the ribosomes embedded there. He is curious about why there are so many ribosomes. You can help. Your response would be,

The carrier molecule must be specific to the molecule that is transported. The direction of movement is always with the concentration gradient, never against the gradient

Facilitated diffusion is an important method for cells in obtaining necessary molecules and removing other ones. Requirements for facilitated diffusion include which of the following?

active transport

The energy-requiring movement of materials against a concentration gradient is termed.

plasma membrane

What cellular structure makes it possible for a cell to differ structurally and biochemical from its surroundings?

directing the synthesis of various food-digesting proteins ( it does include: passing of messages to other cells, returning back to the environment waste and other molecules, responding to a host of chemical cues, & ingesting food as molecules and sometimes as entire cells

The cell's transactions with the environment mediated by its plasma membrane include all of the following except

resolution

The ability to distinguish two points as separate points is called ____.

par focal

As you move upward in magnification the ability of the images to remain nearly in focus is called ____.

DNA/genes

Mitochondria and chloroplasts are other organelles besides the nucleus that contain

bacteria

The genetic material of which kind of cell is included in a single, circular molecule of DNA devoid of any histone proteins?

small; hydrophobic

Biological membranes normally permeable to ____, ____ molecules.

cytoskeleton

A complicated network of protein fibers running through the Eukaryotic cell is called the ____.

cytosol

The fluid portion of the cell.

Water moves out of the cell

As a scientist you perform an experiment in which you create an artificial cell with a selectively permeable membrane through which only water can pass. You put a 5M solution of glucose into the cell and you place that into a beaker of 10M glucose. What observations do you expect to see?

allow bacteria to pass through unaffected ( destroy substances brought in by phagocytes, catalyze the rapid breakdown of macromolecules, break down old organelles, & participate in the phenomenon of selective cell death)

. Lysosomes are vesicles bounded by membranes that contain oxidative enzymes. Their functions include all of the following except they

hyper osmotic (hypertonic)

The turgor pressure observed in plants is a direct result of the plant cells being ____ to their environment.

golgi complex

The cell organelle that functions as both a packaging center and a traffic director is the ____.

cell wall (these are present: plasma membrane, proteins, lipids, & mitochondria)

Which of the following is not present in all Eukaryotic cells?

placed in a hypertonic solution

Plasmolysis of a plant cell occurs when the cell is

all cells need oxygen (Cell theory states: cells vary in size and shape; all organisms are composed of one or more cells; cells arise only by division of a previously existing cell; & cells are the smallest living things)

Schlieden and Schwann stated the "cell theory," which in its modern form includes all of the following except

proteins inward and outward, but RNA only outward

Nuclear pores apparently permit the passage of only

clathrin

____ proteins are required to form the net-like structure that encloses the endocentric vesicle that forms during cell mediated endocytosis. These proteins were first isolated and named by Barbara Pearse in 1975.

diffusion

Food coloring added to water for coloring Halloween eggs will eventually become evenly distributed even without stirring because of

plasma membrane

The boundary of the cell is called the ____

both the volume and surface area increases but the ratio of surface area to volume decreases

As a cell increases in size:

wilts

When cells lose so much water the turgor pressure falls, the plant

cell walls

In bacteria, fungi, and plants the high internal pressure generated by osmosis is counteracted by the mechanical strength of their

four, two

The compound light microscope that you are using in lab has ____ objective lens and ____ ocular lens

ribosomes

Which of the following is not bounded (enclosed) by membranes?

cilia

The human respiratory tract is cleaned of foreign particles by

lipid synthesis

Regions of the ER in which bound ribosomes are relatively rare are likely to be involved in

unsaturated

Bacterial cells cultured at low temperatures will have more ____ fatty acids incorporated into their plasma membrane then those bacteria cultivated at higher temperatures.

cristae

The working surfaces of mitochondria are membranes that are folded into the interior of the mitochondrion. These inner membranes are called.

hypo tonic

If two solutions have unequal concentrations of a solute, the solution with the lower concentration is

nucleus

Which structure is the repository of the genetic information that directs all of the activities of the cell?
A. Which structure is the repository of the genetic information that directs all of the activities of the cell?

ribosome

Given what is known about the minimal essential functions of cellular life, if you could create an artificial cell, which of the following structures must you include?

cell wall

What was the most obvious difference between the cellular structures in the squamous epithelial cell and the onion cell?

osmosis

The movement of water to regions of lower water concentration across a semi permeable membrane is called.

hypo tonic

Penicillin is toxic to certain dividing bacterial cells because it prevents cell wall formation, causing the cells to burst. This indicates that the bacteria live in a(an) ____ environment.

central vacuole

Plant cells often have a large membrane-bound (enclosed) sac that is used for storing water and other substances. The organelle is called.

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