edict of Nantes
grant of tolerance to Protestants in France in 1598, ended civil war between Catholic and Protestant factions
Thirty Years' War
war between German protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain within Holy Roman Empire, ended in 1648 with Treaty of Westphilia
Treaty of Westphalia
ended Thirty Years' War in 1648, granted rights to rulers to choose their own religion: Protestant or Catholic
English Civil War
war caused by religious disputes and issues over powers of the monarchy from 1640 to 1660, ended with restoration of monarchy and execution of previous king
product of 16th and 17th century economic changes in Europe;
working class: manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agricultural economy or urban poor
reflected resentments against religious uncertainties and the poor, cause of death of 100000+ Europeans, common in Protestant areas
period of empirical advances associated with wider theoretical generalizations due to changes in traditional beliefs of Middle Ages; peaked in 17th c.
Polish monk and astronomer
disproved Hellenistic belief that earth was at center of universe
published Copernicus works combined with his own discoveries of gravity and planetary motion
condemned by Catholic church
English physician who demonstrated blood circulation in animals, heart functions as pump
established importance of skeptical view on received wisdom; argued that human reasons can develop laws that explain nature
English scientist, author of Principia; drew astronomical, physical observations and theories of natural laws; established principles of motion and forces of gravity
concept of God during Scientific Revolution: divinity created natural laws, not controlling it
English philosopher who argued that the 5 senses and reasons can help to learn everything, power of government came from people, not divine rights; offered revolutions to overthrow tyrants
concept of government during rise of nation-states in western Europe in 17th c.
monarch passed laws, appointed armies and bureaucracies, imposed state economic policies without parliaments
English overthrow of James II in 1688; affirmed parliament's basic power over the king
originated in England and Holland; kings checked by legislative powers in parliaments
Frederick the Great
Prussian king, attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany, built on military and bureaucratic foundations of predecessors, granted freedom of religion, increased state economic control
Intellectual movement in France during 18th c.
scientific advances, apply scientific method to study of society; belief that rational laws describe social behaviors.
established liberal economics; argued that government should avoid economic regulation in favor of market forces' operation