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What properties or processes do we associate with living things?

Growth and reproduction, Evolutionary adaptations, Responding to the environment, and Energy Processing

How does a scientific theory differ from a scientific hypothesis?

A theory is an explanation for a very general phenomenon or observation; hypotheses treat more specific issues.

An organism that exhibits cephalization probably also is ______________

Bilaterally symmetrical

If you think of the tube-within-a tube body plan as a pipe with a straw inside, where would you expect to find most of the ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal germ layers, respectively?

Pipe; space between pipe and straw; straw

Some animals have no gills when young, but then develop gills that grow larger as the animal grows larger. What is the reason for this increase in gill size?

Relative to their volume, the young have more surface area across which they can transport all the oxygen they need.

There are advantages and disadvantages to adaptations. Animals that are endothermic are likely to be at a disadvantage in which of the following environments.

Environments with variable and limited food sources.

A researcher is setting up an experiment to measure basal metabolic rate in prairie voles. What conditions are best for the voles immediately before and during the measurement.

House the animals in a cage with no food for a few hours before measurement; conduct measurements in a room the same temperature as the room where housed.

When the mammalian brain compares the actual temperature of the body to the preferred temperature of the body, which general component is being used.

Integrator

What is the main reason that a person sitting on the beach with an air temperature of 15 C loses heat less rapidly than when immersed in lake water at 15 C.

Water conducts heat more efficiently than air does.

What is the primary role of a mushroom's underground mycelium?

Absorbing nutrients

Most coal was formed during the Carboniferous period. What is the reasonable hypothesis that explains this observation.

There were not many saprophytic fungi during this period.

Cooking oil and gasoline (a hydrocarbon) are not amphipathic molecules. Why?

They do not have a polar or charged region.

In the energy-yielding phase of glycolysis, energy is extracted in the form of?

ATP and NADH

Most of the CO2 from the catabolism of glucose is released during

The citric acid cycle.

Which of the following are NOT Anthropoids: Lemurs, lorises and tarsiers; New world and old world monkeys; Gorillas; Gibbons and orangutans; or Chimpanzees and humans?

Lemurs, lorises and tarsiers

Water has a high specific heat because of ________

Polar covalent bond formed between oxygen and a hydrogen of a single water moleucule

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