City-state that fought against Rome during the three Punic Wars
General who led the Carthaginian army during the Second Punic War; crossed the Alps and defeated multiple Roman armies. Was finally defeated by the Romans on the Southern edge of the Mediterranean
Roman general who gained great power by instilling a sense of personal loyalty in his troops; he was later defeated in a civil war
Roman general with a loyal army that he used to win a civil war and take control of Rome; he used violence against many of his political opponents
Part of the First Triumvirate who "crossed the Rubicon" with his army and took control of Rome; made many reforms to help the poor, but was killed by Senators who worried about him becoming a permanent dictator
Octavian/ Caesar Augustus
Otherwise known as Augustus Caesar, a member of the Second Triumvirate who eventually took over Rome and began the Roman Empire while claiming to "restore" the Republic.
Roman poet who wrote the epic poem Aeneid
A Roman gladiator and slave who led a slave revolt; his army of 70,000 men was defeated and 6,000 of his followers were crucified
An apostle of Jesus who is credited with beginning the Christian Church; was especially known for spreading the Gospel to Jewish communities
An apostle of Jesus who took missionary journeys all over the Eastern Mediterranean preaching to both Jews and Gentiles (non-Jews); is credited with writing large parts of the New Testament
the first Christian emperor of Rome; built up a large capital city in the Eastern Roman Empire (in modern-day Turkey)
the Roman emperor who made Christianity the official state religion
The new capital city of the Eastern Roman Empire; located in modern-day Turkey and known by the name "Istanbul"
Feared tribe from Asia that pushed the Visigoth tribe into Roman territory