The biggest city and religious center in pre-Islam Arabia; Mohammad fled from here, then came back and conquered the city. This is also the location of the Black Stone.
Known as "The Prophet", he recieved a revelation from God and wrote the Quran. Credited with starting Islam.
The first extended dynasty of the Islamic world; conquered all the way from Persia to Spain, but only allowed Arabs to hold high government positions.
A group of people who overthrew the Umayyad Dynasty; known for being very wealthy through trade. Allowed non-Arabs to hold government positions.
A group of people from central Asia who overthrew the caliph but allowed him to keep religious power; eventually threatened Constantinople, sparking the Crusades.
Muslim ruler who reconquered Jerusalem during the Crusades.
Muslim capital city of Spain.