A person is admitted to the hospital in complete collapse. His blood pH is 6.8, and his HCO3- is 20m/Eq/L What diagnosis would you give and what prognosis? A medical history reveals this person sis a chronic alcoholic.
The pH and bicarbonate levels and the history of alcoholism indicate metabolic acidosis. With a pH below 7.0, the person will go into a coma and death soon follows.
A pregnant woman complains to her doctor that her ankles and feet stay swollen all of the time. She is very worried about this. As her Doctor what would you tell her.
She is showing edema, an atypical accumulation of fluid in the spaces between cells ( interstitial spaces). This is caused by pregnancy due to a high blood volume that increases capillary hydrostatic pressure and enhances capillary permeability. She should be monitored for edema during pregnancy, but it should clear up at the end of the pregnancy.
Helen is a 62-year-old smoker. her physician has diagnosed her as having emphysema that has caused her to hyperventilate. She is tired and sedentary. Besides having difficulty breathing, what other condition is contributing to her tiredness?
Helen is suffering from respiratory acidosis because she is retaining too much carbon dioxide. Her shallow breathing, due to the damage to her lungs from the disease, is the cause. In order to release the carbon dioxide, one must be able to breathe normally (deep breathing would be optimal).
Recently Alex's family noticed that he is craving salt to the point where he uses it excessively on his food. He also had a need to consume strange substances such as clay and burnt match tips. What might be the the cause of this unusual habit.
Alex may be suffering from Addison's Disease, a disorder entailing deficient mineralocorticiod hormone production by the adrenal cortex. Sometimes whin the necessary electrolytes are deficient, people crave strange substances such as chalk, clay, starch, or burnt match chips. This unusual habit is called pica.
After traveling from Los Angeles to Denver, Claire finds that she is not feeling well and checks into a clinic for help. The clinic's diagnosis is respiratory alkalosis. What has caused this problem?
Respitory alkalosis is always caused vy hyperventilation. Claire is experiencing the effect of the high altitude and was overcompensating or trying to do too mych the first day in Denver.
A patient is 72 years old and was admitted to the hospital for severe shortness of breath and edema to her lower extremities. She was diagnosed with heart failure. A symptom of heart failure is generalized edema. Explain the finding of generalized edema in heart failure.
Edema is an atypical accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space, leading to tissue swelling. Heart failure is one cause of edema.
A 13-year-old girl is admitted to the psychiatric unit for anorexia. Her body wieght is 89 lbs. and height is 64 inches. She admits to frequent self-induced vomiting and abuse of laxitives. She was treated on the medical unit with intravenous fluids. Now that shis is on the psychiatric unit she is experiencing fluid retention as evidenced by mild puffiness and bloating. Explaing these symptoms.
It is not uncommon for anorexics who are chronically fluid depleted to develop a compensatory increased production of aldosterone whic causes the kidneys to conserve sodium and water.
A client's anxiety caused her to develop respiratory alkalosis. The nurse instructs the client to take some slow deep breaths. Explain why this would be effective.
Instructing the patient to breath mor slowly will increase the patients CO2 level in the blood. Having the patient breathe into a paper bag would also increase CO2 levels in blood.