How & where did governmental diffusion occur in the post-classical era?
Some states synthesized local and borrowed traditions (such as Persian traditions influencing Islamic states or Chinese traditions influencing Japan).
How and why did crops migrate during the post-classical era?
In response to increasing demand in Afro-Eurasia for foreign luxury goods, crops were transported from their indigenous homelands to equivalent climates in other regions.
How did post-classical states avoid the mistakes of classical empires in the regions where classical empires collapsed?
Most reconstituted governments ombined traditional sources of power and legitimacy with innovations better suited to the current circumstances
How did post-classical trade affect the diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions
Increased cross-cultural interactions resuluted in the diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions.
How did post-classical trade affect the diffusion of scientific and technological traditions?
Increased cross-cultural interactions also resulted in the diffusion of scientific and technological traditions
How did social and gender hierarchies develop in the post-classial era?
Social structures were shapred largely by class and caste hierarchies. Patriarchy persisted; however, in some areas, women exercised more power and influence
How did social and labor systems develop during the post-classical era?
Changes in labor management and in the effects of religious conversion on gender relations and family life.
How did some gender roles and family structures change in the post-classical era?
The diffusion of Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, and Neo-Confucianism
How did state formations develop in the post classical era?
In Afro-Eurasia some states attempted, with varying degrees of success, to preserve of revive imperial structures, while smaller, less-centralized states continued to develop.
How did states in the Americas develop in the post-classical era?
In the Americas, as in Afro-Eurasia, state systems expanded in scope and reach; networks of city-states flourished in the Maya region, and at the end of this period, imperial systems were reated by the Mexica and Inca.
How did textile and porcelain production develop in the post-classical era?
Chinese, Persian, and Indian aritsans and merchants also expanded their production of extiles and porcelains for export
How did the physical size of post-classical trade networks compare to the previous era.
They were larger
How did trade networks as a whole develop in the post-classical era?
Cross-cultural exchanges were fostered by the intensification of existing or the reation of new networks of trade & communication.
How did trade networks in the post-Classical era compare to the Classical era?
There were more, larger, and better trade networks.
How did trans-Eurasian trade as a whole develop during the post-Classical Era?
The expansion of existing empires as well as new empires facilitated tans-Eurasian trade and communication as new peoples were drawn into economies and trade netowrks
How well did post-classical societies know and understand each other?
The writings of certain inter-regional travelers illustrate both the extent and the limitations of inter-cultural knowledge and understanding.
What basic understandings of enviroment and technology did post-classical traders need to conduct their business?
The expansion and intensification of long-distance trade routes often depended on peoples' understanding of a particular regional enviroment and their subsequent technological adaptations
What Classical Era trade networks continued during the post-classical era, and which new cities were added during the post-Classical era?
Existing trade routes flourished inclduing the Silk Roads, the Mediterranean Sea, trans-Saharan and the Indian Ocean Basin, and promoted the growth of powerful new trading cities such as Novgorod, Timbuktu, Hangzhou, Calicut, Baghdad, and Venice
What diseases and pathogens also spread via post-classical trade networks?
The spread of epidemic diseases, including the Black Death, followed the well-established paths of trade and military conquest.
What factors encouraged commercial growth in the post-Classical era.
Commercial growth was also facilitated by new state practices, new trading organizations, and new state-sponsored commercial infrastructures
What institutions did merchants create to foster both trade and culutural diffusion in the post-classical era?
In key places along important trade routes, merchants set up diaspora communities where they introduced their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture
What new foods, crops, and agricultural practices diffused in the post-Classical era?
New foods were adopted in populated areas such as bananas in Africa, new rice varieties in East Asia or the Muslim Agricultural Revolution
What new innovations affected agriculture in the post-classical era?
New technological innovations were the Champa rice varities, the chinampa field systems, waru waru raised field cultivation in the Andean areas, impoved terracing techniques or the horse collar.
What new labor forms developed in the post-classical era?
Serfdom in Eupre and Japan and the elaboration of the mot'a in the Inca Empire. Demand for slaves also increased.
What new technologies enabled the growth of inter-regional trade networks?
It was encouraged by a more sophisticated caravan, use of the compass, astrolabe, and larger ships in sea travel, and new forms of credit and monetization
What new technologies, governmental policies, and merchant activities accompanied these developments?
Innovations in transportation, state policies, and mercantile practices contributed to the expansion and development of commercial networks
What pre-existing labor systems continued through the post-classical era?
Free peasent agriculture, nomadic pastoralism, craft production and guild organization, along with various forms of coerced and unfree labor and government imposed labor taxes and military obligations.
What role did pastoral and nomadic groups play in these trade networks?
Pastoral or nomadic groups played a key role in creating and sustaining these networks
What roles did cities play in their societies during the post-classical era?
They continued to play as govenmental, religious, and commercial centers.
What technological and cultural exchanged dis states encourage in the post-classical era?
Inter-regional contacts and conflicts between states and empires encouraged significant technological and cultural transfers, for example between Tang China and the Abbasids, across the Mongol empires and during the Crusades.
What were the biological effects of post-Classical trade?
There was continued diffusion of crops and pathogens throughout the Eastern Hemisphere along the trade routes.
What were the effect of migration in the post-classical era?
The movement of peoples caused enviromental and linguistic effects.
What were the enviromental effects of migration in the post-classical era?
Some migrations had huge impact, such as the migration of the agricultural Bantu peoples in forested regions of Sub-Saharan Agrica, and the maritime migrations of the Polynesian peoples who cultivated transplanted foods and domesticated animals.
What were the linguistic effects of migration in the post-classical era?
Some migrations and commercial contacts led to the diffusion of languages throughout a new region or the emergence of new languages
What were the overall worldwide economic trends in the post-classical era?
Changes in trade networks resulted from and stimulated increasing productive capcity. Productivity rose in both agriculture and industry, which suppored population growth but strained the enviroment. Shifts in production and the increased volume of trade also stimulated new labor practices.
Why and where did Muslim trade networks change in the post-classical era?
Islam expanded from the Arabian Peninsula to many parts of Afro-Eurasia due to military expansion and the activites of merchants and missionaries
Why did some post-classical urban areas decline?
Factors that contributed to declines of urban areas in this period included invasions, disease, the decline of agricultural productivity, and the Little Ice Age.