PSYC 361 Motivation

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Flashcards for Midterm 1

Psychological Hedonism

Organisms engage in behaviours that are expected to have desirable outcomes and avoid ones that are expected to have aversive outcomes.

Determinism

The belief that all events are caused by the
things that happened before them.

Dualism

The mind and body are qualitatively different.

Monism

The mind and body are the same.

Interactionist Dualism

The mind and body are qualitatively different. What the body does depends on the mind, the interaction occurs in the pineal gland.

Parallelistic Dualism

The mind and body are separate but the mind does not cause the body to do anything. There should be different methods for studying each.

Mentalistic Monism

The view that if we know the world only from experience, then experience may be all there is (Matrix).

Materialistic Monism

The mind is what the brain does.

Criteria for a Good Theory (4)

testability
fruitfulness
simplicity
comprehensiveness

Semiotic

System for understanding scientific language.

Circular Definition

Something which is defined in terms of itself.

2 Approaches to Motivation

regulatory
purposive

Regulatory Approach

Emphasizes the body's response to disruptive internal forces like hunger and pain and the way the body tries to restore homeostasis.

Purposive Approach

Emphasizes the goal directed nature of behaviour, less concerned with physiology.

James-Lange Theory

Responses to emotionally arousing situations come before the emotional experience. Bear--> Run--> Afraid.

Cannon-Bard Theory

Visceral changes are too slow to account for emotions.

Limbic System

Papez Circuit. Set of pathways in the core of the brain that constitute the neural circuitry underlying emotional response and behaviour.

Limbic System Parts

Amygdala, Mammillary Body, Hippocampus, Fornix, Cortex Cingulate Gyrus, Septum, Olfactory Bulb, Hypothalamus.

3 Aspects of Affective Experience

Temperament, Mood, Emotion.

Temperament

Stable tendencies toward having positive or negative affect.

Moods

Relatively enduring, weak but pervasive, no specific recognized source.

Emotions

Brief and intense with a specific object towards which to act.

2 Variables for Studying Emotion

Behavioural (Verbal and Non-Verbal), Physiological.

Central Nervous System

Brain and Spinal Cord.

Peripheral Nervous System

All the nerves and everything else.

Somatic Nervous System

Regulates interactions with the environment; Sensory input and muscle movements.

Autonomic Nervous System

Regulates internal body activities in solved in maintaining and replenishing the body. Divides into: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems.

Sympathetic Nervous System

ANS. Concerned with emergency functions like fight or flight.

Parasympathetic Nervous System

ANS. Concerned with digestive activity.

Pleasure Centres

medial forebrain bundle
lateral hypothalamus
ventral tegmental area

Amygdala

Expressing and recognizing emotion and learning emotional associations. Fear and negative emotions.

Pyramidal Motor System

Responsible for voluntary emotional responses, genuine facial expressions.

Extrapyramidal Motor System

Involuntary emotional responses, false facial expressions.

Homeostasis

The automatic adjustments that the body makes to restore stability.

Feedback Signals

Tell us when to stop an activity. Negative feedback or energy state monitoring.

Feed Forward Signals

Anticipatory signals, like the sight of food or cold hands, that get us to prepare for an event.

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

Hormone, reduces pleasure from ingested food so the anima stops eating, negative feedback signal.

Cephalic Insulin

Insulin released from the pancreas into the blood in response to an increase of glucose, fat, or amino acids; homeostatic mechanism.

Diabetes Mellitus

Inadequate insulin.

Proper Diet Proportions

15-20% Fats
65% Carbohydrates
15% Protein

Feeding Specialists

Genetically wired to select the proper food (Koalas).

Feeding Generalists

Can mind an adequate diet among many different combinations of foods, must map wise choices about what to eat (omnivores).

Cafeteria Diet Studies

All foods for a well rounded diet are available and the animal is allowed to eat freely. Children and animals eat an appropriate diet unless there are high preference foods present.

Dual Hypothalamic Theory of Hunger

The lateral hypothalamus (LH) is an excitatory area for feeding and the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is an inhibitory area for feeding.

Taste Stimuli

Sucrose (sweet), Quinine (bitter), Sodium Chloride (salty), Citric Acid (sour).

Aldosterone

Salt regulating hormone in the adrenal glands, when this is absent preference for salt goes up.

Diabetes Insipidus

Disease of the adrenal gland, lose mass amounts of salt in urine and thus consume large amounts of salt.

Alliesthesis

Under deprivation conditions the acceptability of particular tastes is increased.

Aquisition

The process of learning to associate the CS with the US.

Extinction

The decline of the conditioned response when the CS is presented without the US.

Stimulus Generalization

When we are conditioned to one CS we are also less strongly conditioned to similar stimuli.

Stimulus Substitution Model

One stimulus comes to substitute for another stimulus by evoking the same response.

Stimulus Representation Model

The CS is associated with an image of the US in the brain.

Contingency Theory

The occurrence of the US is contingent on the occurrence of the CS.

Neophobic

Approaching new stimuli timidly, learned safety.

Regulatory Drinking

Drinking in direct response to the need for water.

Non-Regulaory Drinking

Drinking in response to other factors.

Double Depletion Hypothesis

2 mechanisms stimulate us to drink. Intra cellular and extra cellular.

Osmoreceptors

Specialized brain cells that detect a concentration difference and signal the brain to initiate action. (Intra/Extra cellular mechanisms)

Overshadowing

When 2 CS's are always paired together and conditioned to the same US: the more salient of the pair will evoke a stranger CR (loud sound vs. dim light).

Coolidge Effect

Males will copulate to satiety with one female then immediately engage in sexual behaviour with a novel female.

Cognitive Labelling Theory of Emotion

Emotional experience depends on bodily changes, bodily changes do precede emotions but arousal must be interpreted.

Discrete Theories of Emotion

There are very few distinct emotions, all the rest are just variations.

Dimensional Theories of Emotion

Emotional states are plotted based on how pleasant/unpleasant and hugh/low arousal.

Opponent Process Theory

Assumes separate systems underlying positive and negative emotions.

Sensory Specific Satiety

A reduction in the subjective desire for food having eaten it to satiety.

Sham Eating Study

In rats, when the for never gets to the stomach they eat a varied diet, more unfamiliar and differences in sizes.

Insula & Basal Ganglia

Disgust recognition and experience, motor control, learning, action selection.

Nucleus Accumbens

Allows integration of emotional responses, higher order cognition and action.

Prefrontal Cortex

Attention, planning, impulse control, social awareness, judgement, organization; executive functions.

Antecedent, Intervening, Consequent

IV, concept, DV.
Water deprivation (or none), Thirst (no thirst), Running fast (running slow).

3 Phases of Eating

Cephalic, Absorptive, Fasting.

Cephalic Phase of Eating

Preparation to eat, often triggered by sight or smell of food.

Absorptive Phase of Eating

Energy from food absorbed into bloodstream, body's needs being met.

Fasting Phase

Unstored energy from pervious meal has been used, body is using energy reserves.

Insulin

High blood glucose-->beta cells of pancreas release insulin-->fat cells take in glucose from blood--> glucose levels back to normal. This happens when there is too much glucose in the blood.

Glucagon

Low blood glucose-->alpha cells of pancreas release glucagon-->liver releases glucose into blood-->glucose levels back to normal. This happens when there is not enough glucose in the blood.

Positive Incentive Perspective

Higher order mammals are drawn to eat by the anticipated pleasure of eating.

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