APUSH Chapter 15 People

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Alexis de Tocqueville

The church-going nature of America was noted by this French observer
Also noted that rape in America was punishable by death, whereas in his home of France it was usually overlooked

Deism

sprang out of the Enlightenment (AKA "Age of Reason") and was based on scientific or logical reasoning rather than faith

Unitarian

religion drew followers even farther away from Christianity
• Believed God existed in 1 person ("uni"), but not in the Holy Trinity.
• Rejected the divinity of Christ.
• Believed people were essentially good at heart, not born under "original sin."
• Believed people were saved through "good works", not through faith in Christ.
• Attracted intellectual types, notably Ralph Waldo Emerson

Millerites

• aka Adventists
• predicted Christ's return on October 22, 1844
• When this prophesy failed to materialize, the movement lost credibility

Horace Mann

• known as the "Father of Public Education"
• pushed for free compulsory education

William H. McGuffey

wrote the McGuffey's Reader, contained english lessons and patriotic and moral lessons

University of North Carolina

first state-supported university

William Ladd

led the American Peace Society, dismantled once Civil War began in 1828

American Temperance Society

• founded in Boston, 1826
• used a variety of methods to encourage temperance (discourage drinking)

Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell

became the first female doctor

Margaret Fuller

edited a transcendentalist journal

Grimke sisters

Sisters who pushed for the abolition of slavery

Seneca Falls Women's Rights Convention (1848)

• It wrote a "Declaration of Sentiments" arguing that "all men and women were created equal"
• It demanded female suffrage
• Neither of these things happened anytime soon, but the women's rights movement was born

Robert Owen

started New Harmony, Indiana (1825) for intellectuals, failed due to infighting

Brook Farm

• Started in Massachusetts (1841)
• It attracted Transcendentalist intellectuals

Oneida Community

was communal and embraced free love, birth control, and selecting parents to have planned children in New York 1848

Mother Ann Lee

Established the Shakers who stressed simplicity in their lives and separated the sexes, dyed by 1940

Thomas Paine

"Age of Reason" influenced the creation of Deism, favored by Jefferson and Franklin

Nathaniel Bowditch

wrote on navigation

Matthew Maury

studied the ocean winds and currents

Benjamin Silliman

Yale chemist and geologist for 50+ years

Louis Agassiz

Harvard biologist who stressed original research over rote memorization

Asa Gray

Harvard botanist and was a pioneer of botany

John Audubon

early naturalist who painted birds with precise details

Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes

said that if all the medicines were thrown into the sea, the people would be better off and the fish worse

Gilbert Stuart

painted many portraits of George Washington

John Trumbull

painted scenes of the Revolutionary War

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Intellectual who favored Unitarian religion, most famous Transcendentalist, most famous writing Is Self Reliance stressing individualism

Peter Cartwright

One of the leading preachers in the 2nd Great Awakening, a Methodist who traveled to preach

Charles Grandison Finney

A leading preachier in the 2nd Great Awakening, noted form being a most gifted speaker/preacher that could move the masses. Massive revivals in NY and Rochester in 1830's

William Miller

Predicted Christ's return on October 22,1844 and main cause for the rise of the Millerites aka Adventists

Joseph Smith

1830- said to have been given the book of Mormon by an Angel, began the Mormon Church of Jesus Christ

Brigham Young

Took over the Mormons in 1846-47 and led them along the Mormon Trail to Utah

Noah Webster

helped standardize American language by publishing a dictionary

Thomas Jefferson

Started the university of Virginia- free of politics and religion in 1819, invented a new type of plow

Emma Willard

Established the Troy Female Seminary in 1821, female college in Ohio

Mary Lyon

Established Mount Holyoke Seminary in 1837, female college in Mass.

Dorothea Dix

Improved treatment for the mentally insane in 1843 by petitioning to the Mass. legislature

Neil S. Dow

"Father of Prohibition" Sponsored the Maine Law of 1851 which prohibited the sale or manufacturing of alcohol

Catherine Beecher

Urged women to take teaching jobs

Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Pushed for women suffrage

Amelia Bloomer

Wore short skirts (bloomers)

Stephen Foster

Known for Suwanee River, America folk music by capturing lives of the slaves

Washington Irving

Wrote Knickerbockers History of New York1809 , Legend of Sleepy Hollow and Rip Van Winkle, settings was US

James Fennimore Copper

First blockbuster American fiction in Leatherstocking Tales, settings in wilderness NY

WIlliam Cullen Bryant

wrote poetry such as Thanatopisis 1817, set a model for journalism

Henry David Thoreau

Lived the Transcendentalist life, lived in the woods off of what he could make himself , wrote On the Duty of Civil Disobedience which emphasized peacefully not following unjust laws

Walt Whitman

wrote Leaves of Grass encouraging people to live their life to the fullest

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

popular poet of Evangeline based on American Traditions

John Greenleaf Whittier

Sought to influence social action and stood against slavery

James Russel Lowell

satirical poetry that criticized social wrongs

Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes

a noon conformist who wrote that Boston was the hub of the universe

Louisa May Alcott

Grew up in Transcendentalist Concord, Mass and wrote Little Women

Emily Dickinson

wrote love poems in Mass.

Edgar Allen Poe

invented psychological thrillers

Nathaniel Hawthorne

Explored the idea of original sin

Herman Melville

wrote Moby Dick, allegory of good vs evil

George Bancroft

Helped found the Naval Academy in Annapolis, MD, "Father of American History"

William H. Prescott

wrote history of the conquests of Mexico and Peru

Francis Parkman

wrote history of England and France trying to control North America

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