the way of life of a group of people
the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture
discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race
a generalized belief about a group of people
the ability to accept other people as they are
influence in an unfair way
The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another
an exchange of goods
a relationship between countries in which they rely on one another for resources, goods, or services
The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world.
adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture
third culture kid
A Person that spend a majority out of their birth place
the practice of judging a culture by its own standards
The study of the physical features of the earth and man's interactions with his environment.
The study of the past. The past can effect the future.
sociology The Study of human relationships.( religion, culture, ethnicity, family, book club.)
the study and classification of human societies
the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings
the branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management
the study of government of states and other political units
Final solution where Israel receives peace and Palestine gets land.
the issue in the final status that palestine wanted it to be as if they were two normal countries boardering each other but israel didnt trust palestine and wanted there to be extra border security, police, arms, etc.
prime minister in Israel; after he took office the violence escalated; , He visited Temple Mount in 2000, which made the Arabs very angry
current prime minister of Israel; right-wing conservative unwilling to compromise with Palestinians; Did Wye River Memorandum in 1998.
Place where there were meetings to discuss land for peace which was in 1979 between Israel and Egypt
Camp David Accords 2000
Yasir Arafat, Ehud Barak, and Bill Clinton attended main stumble was Yasir Arafat disagrees Temple Mount is underneath East Jerusalem.
Dome of the Rock
Muslim shrine containing the rock from which Mohammad is believed to have risen to heaven; Jews believe Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac on the rock
includes holy land, palesitinians claimed this as their capital
Israeli Prime Minister in 2000 who met with president Clinton to discuss a peace agreement at Camp David Agreement of 2000.
a territory along the Mediterranean Sea just northeast of the Sinai Peninsula; part of the land set aside for Palestinians, which was occupied by Israel in 1967.
A region that was formerly part of Southwest Syria that Israel has occupied since 1967 war.
a militant Islamic fundamentalist political movement that opposes peace with Israel; considered to use terrorism as a weapon
a Shiite terrorist organization with strong ties to Iran
an uprising by Palestinian Arabs (in both the Gaza Strip and the West Bank) against Israel in the late 1980s and again in 2000
largest city of the modern state of Israel; Israelis believe that it is their capital, however other countries do not recognize it as the capital
king of Jordan credited with creating stability at home and seeking peace with Israel (1935-1999)
land for peace
Withdrawal of Israeli forces (Giving Up Land), and Termination of all claims or states of belligerency (Making Peace). Completion of United Nations Security Council Resolution 242
right wing party, no negotiation with Arabs, revival of Jewish culture
Main people: Menachem Begin, Yitzhak Shamir, Benjamin Netanyahu
Sinai Peninsula, West Bank, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights
An agreement in 1993 in which Israeli prime minister Rabin granted Palestinian self-rule in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.
plan to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict proposed by a "quartet" of international entities: the United States, the European Union, Russia, and the United Nations.
(PA) Palestinian Authority
Organization established by Palestinians to govern the West Bank and Gaza.
(PLO) Palestinian Liberation Organization
a political movement uniting Palestinian Arabs in an effort to create an independent state of Palestine
President Bill Clinton
President of the US who was present at both the Wye River Memorandum and the Camp David 2000 Summit
Refugees (right of return)
Palestinians claim they have this which would give them their land back
Places in Palestine that the Isrealis have taken order for protection
Israeli Foreign Minister, wanted to extend peace to Jordan & Syria; 9th President of Israel
Place in Jordan that Israeli forces won, it had limited self-rule under Palestinian Authority
Wye- River accords
A political agreement in 28 September, 1995 brokered by the United States between Israel and the Palestine Authority. It was signed by Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat. Signed at the White House with President Bill Clinton playing a key role as the official witness.
First leader of PLO- Very active throughout the 1970's and 1980's. To try to make peace with Israel, was put incharge of Palestinean Authority (PA).
The Israeli prime minister who agreed to grant the Palestinians their own land. In 1995 he was killed by Jewish extremists
a worldwide Jewish movement that resulted in the establishment and development of the state of Israel
8 meter high wall being built around the west bank separating Palestine and Egypt
President of Palestinian Authority, Leader of Fatah Party, was the first PM of Palestinian authority.
land that is administrated but not owned by the league of nations
Formed in 1945 to defend Arab cause in Palestine, the Arab League is a group of Arab states in the Middle East and North Africa
to place under the state's control
The process of reforming political, military, economic, social, and cultural traditions in imitation of the early success of Western societies, often with regard for accommodating local traditions in non-Western societies.
a redistribution of agricultural land (especially by government action)
(OPEC) Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
the dispersion of the Jews outside Israel
Started by the UN to make western Palestine into a Jewish and Arab state. (Splitting up Palestine)
World War I
a war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918
World War II
a war between the Allies (Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands)
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation.
the former residents of isreal area where forced into refugee camps
Leader of Egyptian modernization in the early nineteenth century. He ruled Egypt as an Ottoman governor, but had imperial ambitions. His descendants ruled Egypt until overthrown in 1952.
This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years. Russia supported the Arab countries whereas the US supported Israel
War of 1948
Started because the Arabs didn't like the UN partition plan so then all the surrounding Arab states attcked Israel.
Suez Crisis, War of 1956
Joint effort from British and French with Israel to occupy the Suez Canal. Egypt responded by sinking 40 ships in the canal, blocking all passage. Britain and France backed down, and control of the canal was given back to Egypt in March 1957.
War of 1967, Six- Day war
war between Israel against it's surrounding Arab states and also other Arab states contributed with weapons. Victory for Israel.
War of 1973, Yom Kippur War
Egypt and Syria fought against Israel to win back territories captured in the 1967 war
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Egyptian statesman who nationalized the Suez Canal (1918-1870)
president of Egypt from 1970-1981; signed first peace treaty with Israel
A piece of land that is currently a part of Egypt but was a UN buffer zone from 1956-1966 and a part of Israel from 1967-1979
A human-made waterway, which was opened in 1869, connecting the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea
Persian Gulf War
a war fought between a coalition led by the United States and Iraq to free Kuwait from Iraqi invaders
Lebanese Civil War
1975 - 1990 after the war lebanon set up a new government with equal parliamentary seats between Muslims and Christians
Turkish statesman who abolished the caliphate and founded Turkey as a modern secular state (1881-1938)
Ruler of Iran . He worked for modernization and education. He worked on social legislation, ousted by British during WWII
Iranian religious leader of the Shiites
A government controlled by religious leaders
750-1258, Golden age of Islam, capital in Baghdad, focused on institutions and economic expansion, ethnic equality, problems were rifts with the Perisans/Shia.
A washing or cleansing, used by Muslims before every prayer to be purified.
Great mosque created by the Fatimids.
a supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government
A series of holy wars from 1096-1270 AD undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule.
people who claimed they were descended by Muhammad's daughter Fatima. The Shi'a Muslims formed the Fatimid Caliphate around 1258 in North Africa but it eventually spread to western Arabia and Syria.
beliefs that all Muslims needed to carry out: Faith, Prayer, Alms, Fasting, and Pilgrimage
Golden Age of Islam
Minaret-tower of prayer. Medicine Antibiotics, cataract eye surgery, algebra,calligraphy
the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah
the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 which marked the beginning of the Muslim era
(Islam) the man who leads prayers in a mosque
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
(Islam) a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
Founded their own state which was the ruling of Egypt and Syria (1250-1517)
the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca.
niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla, that is, the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca
Areas of town where individual religious groups could live and practice their religions.
the tower attached to a mosque from which the muezzin calls the faithful to prayer five times a day
object commonly found in traditional mosques. The Imam of the Mosque goes up the stairs and sits (or stands) from the seat at the top so that he can preach a sermon. It is a lot like a pulpit which is found in traditional Christian churches.
Founder of Islam. Muslims believe he was God's prophet.
belief in a single God
(Islam) a Muslim place of worship
the Muslim official of a mosque who summons the faithful to prayer from a minaret five times a day
a Turkish sultanate of southwestern Asia and northeastern Africa and southeastern Europe
people of the book
what Muslims called Christians and Jews which means that they too only believe in one god.
a tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote
messenger of god
sultan of Syria and Egypt
nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs
Suleiman the Magnificent
The most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean.
A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad
Central Asian nomadic peoples; smashed Turko-Persian kingdoms; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed last Abbasid caliph
661-750 *Beginning of Golden Age of Islam; conquered Sind & Indus River Valley; incorporated it as province to expand empire
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
-United Nations International Children's Emergency Funds, rich kids raise money for poor kids
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon
World Health Organisation
Head of the Arab League
World Food Program
United Nations Development Program
World Trade Organisation
International Atomic Energy Agency
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
Ban Ki Moon
UN Secretary General
The UN Relief and Work Agency
International Monetary Fund
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Five permanent members( US, UK, France, China, USSR) with veto power in the UN. Promised to carry out UN decisions with their own forces.