a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
a type of learning in which one learns to link 2 or more stimuli and anticipate events (Pavlov)
View that psychology should restrict its efforts to studying observable behaviors, not mental processes.
unconditioned response (ur)
a natural response that requires no training
conditioned response (cr)
a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning
unconditioned stimulus (us)
a stimulus that naturally, automatically brings up a response
conditioned stimulus (cs)
a previously neutral stimulus that has through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response.
In classical conditioning, the intial stage, when we link a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. (In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.)
in classical conditioning, the process of eliminating the previously acquired association of the conditioned stimulus and conditioned response
the tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 320)
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
learning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in corresponding increases or decreases in occurrence
A method of gradually refining a response by successively reinforcing closer approximations
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
The strengthening of a response because it is followed by the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus.
A reinforcer that meets our basic needs such as food, water, sleep, or love.
stimulus that becomes rewarding through its link with a primary reinforcement (starbucks)
fixed ratio schedule
pattern in which we provide reinforcement following a regular number of responses
fixed ration schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of times
variable interval schedule
A schedule in which reinforcement is presented after a changing amount of time.
can be either positive or negative, intended to reduce the occurrence of a behavior