|true predators|| catch and kill prey|
immediately: wolves to whales to seed-eating rodents. Note their effect on the
numbers of individuals in prey populations.
|parasites|| also consume only part of living prey, but|
generally do not kill the prey -- specialize on one to a few prey during their life;
tapeworms (diet pills), measles, mistletoes, aphids. Note no effect on the
numbers of individuals in prey population.
|parasitoids|| free living adults|
which lay eggs in, on, or near other insects, generally consuming a living prey,
while slowly killing it. Mostly resemble predators, because it changes numbers
of individuals in prey populations. Tomato-horned worms.
|grazers|| remove only part of many prey,|
rarely lethal; sheep, leeches, mosquitoes
|Batesian Mimicry|| harmless organisms resemble poisonous or|
|Mullerian mimicry||poisonous resemble poisonous|
|Type 1 response curves|| linear increase in prey taken until|
maximum is reached. Maximum is set by some minimum
handling time per prey.
|Type 2 response curves|| caused by satiation, predator|
gradually slows down. First obtained by Holling with
blindfolded secretaries choosing sandpaper discs
|Type 3 response curves|| High density portion|
is similar to type II. Low density may be caused by choice
hiding places being taken at low prey densities or by
|Biological Control||It would be best to have control agent (predator) that will keep the pest in check, but continue to coexist with the pest.|
|Integrated pest management||is an integrated approach of crop management to solve ecological problems when applied in agriculture.|
|Vertical transmission of diseases||mother to offspring|
|Horizontal transmission of diseases||individual to individual through common environment|
|Direct transmission of diseases||colds, STD|
|Indirect transmission of diseases|| involved animal transmission between|
humans (malaria, rabies, Lyme disease)
|community|| An assemblage of|
populations of living organisms in a prescribed area or
habitat that interact with one another, directly or indirectly
|ecosystem|| all the interacting parts of the physical and|
|association||group of species living in the same place.|
|guild|| species in the same community utilizing resources in|
the same way, often competitors.
|Phytosociology|| the study of the composition and structure|
of plant communities.
|Ecosystem ecology|| also can be reductionist, using|
energy and nutrients as units instead of individuals
|Population-based approaches|| reductionist view, using|
individuals and species as building blocks and units.
|alpha diversity|| within-habitat diversity, number of|
species in local, small areas of uniform habitat
|beta diversity||between habitat diversity, the variation in species composition from one habitat to another within a region.|
|gamma diversity||The numbers and relative abundances of species across a region that includes numerous local habitats|
|broken stick model|| assumes|
division of a single resource, but
|geometric|| assumes division of|
resource in regular, sequential way.
|log-normal distribution|| it is likely that multiple factors are affecting the distribution|
of species abundances (such as competing for multiple resources). Most communities fit a log-normal
|Top predators||species that get eaten by nothing else in the food web|
|Basal species|| species that feed on nothing|
within the web (usually plants)
|Omnivores|| species that feed at more than|
one trophic level
|Trophic species|| groups of species that have|
the same predator and prey
|Cannibalism|| a cycle in which a species|
feeds upon itself
|Connectance|| number of actual interactions|
divided by the number of possible interactions
|Compartments|| suites of species with strong|
linkages among group members but weak
linkages to other species
|connectedness webs||A description of the linkages among species in a community based on whether or not the species interact with one another|
|energy flow webs|| represent an ecosystem viewpoint in which|
energy flow between resource and consumers is emphasized
|functional webs|| the importance of each population in maintaining|
the integrity of the community reflects
|F. Clements|| thought of communities as discrete units with sharp boundaries (superorganism view resulting in a closed|
|Gleason and Cooper view||communities as a chance or fortuitous association of organisms whose adaptations enabled them to life together under the particular physical and biological conditions found at theparticular location (individualistic view leading to an open community)|
|Biogeography|| the study of the geographic distribution of|
plants and animals
|Wallace's line||a biogeographic boundary|
|succession|| replacement of populations in a habitat|
through a regular progression to a stable state (climax).
|sere|| a series of stages of community change in a|
particular area leading toward a stable state.
|Primary succession||sanddunes, lava, glaciation)|
|Secondary succession|| pioneer species to climax|
species in organic soils where life had previously been
before a disturbance.
|relay floristics|| Each species makes the environment less suitable for|
themselves and more suitable for others.
|inhibition (process) model|| possibly leading to a polyclimax. No species in|
this model is competitively superior to another -
who wins depends on who gets there first.
Succession proceeds from short-lived species to
long-lived species, but is not especially orderly.
|random colonization model||succession involves only the chance survival of different species and random colonization by new species.|
|Climax||final "stable" community|
|community resilience|| a measure of the ability of a community to|
persist in the presence of perturbations
|Keystone predators||predators that have particularly large effects on diversity and community structure, usually through indirect effects via their prey.|
|Chemical Ecology:|| The study of how chemicals|
influence the abundance and distribution of organisms
|Janzen‐Connell hypothesis||Studied seeds in rain forest|