catch and kill prey
immediately: wolves to whales to seed-eating rodents. Note their effect on the
numbers of individuals in prey populations.
also consume only part of living prey, but
generally do not kill the prey -- specialize on one to a few prey during their life;
tapeworms (diet pills), measles, mistletoes, aphids. Note no effect on the
numbers of individuals in prey population.
free living adults
which lay eggs in, on, or near other insects, generally consuming a living prey,
while slowly killing it. Mostly resemble predators, because it changes numbers
of individuals in prey populations. Tomato-horned worms.
remove only part of many prey,
rarely lethal; sheep, leeches, mosquitoes
harmless organisms resemble poisonous or
poisonous resemble poisonous
Type 1 response curves
linear increase in prey taken until
maximum is reached. Maximum is set by some minimum
handling time per prey.
Type 2 response curves
caused by satiation, predator
gradually slows down. First obtained by Holling with
blindfolded secretaries choosing sandpaper discs
Type 3 response curves
High density portion
is similar to type II. Low density may be caused by choice
hiding places being taken at low prey densities or by
It would be best to have control agent (predator) that will keep the pest in check, but continue to coexist with the pest.
Integrated pest management
is an integrated approach of crop management to solve ecological problems when applied in agriculture.
Vertical transmission of diseases
mother to offspring
Horizontal transmission of diseases
individual to individual through common environment
Direct transmission of diseases
Indirect transmission of diseases
involved animal transmission between
humans (malaria, rabies, Lyme disease)
An assemblage of
populations of living organisms in a prescribed area or
habitat that interact with one another, directly or indirectly
all the interacting parts of the physical and
group of species living in the same place.
species in the same community utilizing resources in
the same way, often competitors.
the study of the composition and structure
of plant communities.
also can be reductionist, using
energy and nutrients as units instead of individuals
reductionist view, using
individuals and species as building blocks and units.
within-habitat diversity, number of
species in local, small areas of uniform habitat
between habitat diversity, the variation in species composition from one habitat to another within a region.
The numbers and relative abundances of species across a region that includes numerous local habitats
broken stick model
division of a single resource, but
assumes division of
resource in regular, sequential way.
it is likely that multiple factors are affecting the distribution
of species abundances (such as competing for multiple resources). Most communities fit a log-normal
species that get eaten by nothing else in the food web
species that feed on nothing
within the web (usually plants)
species that feed at more than
one trophic level
groups of species that have
the same predator and prey
a cycle in which a species
feeds upon itself
number of actual interactions
divided by the number of possible interactions
suites of species with strong
linkages among group members but weak
linkages to other species
A description of the linkages among species in a community based on whether or not the species interact with one another
energy flow webs
represent an ecosystem viewpoint in which
energy flow between resource and consumers is emphasized
the importance of each population in maintaining
the integrity of the community reflects
thought of communities as discrete units with sharp boundaries (superorganism view resulting in a closed
Gleason and Cooper view
communities as a chance or fortuitous association of organisms whose adaptations enabled them to life together under the particular physical and biological conditions found at theparticular location (individualistic view leading to an open community)
the study of the geographic distribution of
plants and animals
a biogeographic boundary
replacement of populations in a habitat
through a regular progression to a stable state (climax).
a series of stages of community change in a
particular area leading toward a stable state.
sanddunes, lava, glaciation)
pioneer species to climax
species in organic soils where life had previously been
before a disturbance.
Each species makes the environment less suitable for
themselves and more suitable for others.
inhibition (process) model
possibly leading to a polyclimax. No species in
this model is competitively superior to another -
who wins depends on who gets there first.
Succession proceeds from short-lived species to
long-lived species, but is not especially orderly.
random colonization model
succession involves only the chance survival of different species and random colonization by new species.
final "stable" community
a measure of the ability of a community to
persist in the presence of perturbations
predators that have particularly large effects on diversity and community structure, usually through indirect effects via their prey.
The study of how chemicals
influence the abundance and distribution of organisms
Studied seeds in rain forest