|Shakespearean Sonnet||a sonnet consisting three quatrains and a concluding couplet in iambic pentameter with the rhyme pattern abab cdcd efef gg|
|Petrarchan/Italian Sonnet||a fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter comprised of an octave to a sestet and rhyming in some variation of abbaabbacdecde.|
|conceit||an extended metaphor with a complex logic that governs a poetic passage or entire poem.|
|paradox||an apparent contradiction that requires thought to reveal an inner consistency|
|metaphor||Metaphor is an implied comparison that brings together two dissimilar objects, persons, or ideas.|
|elegy||a mournful poem; a lament for the dead|
|Pastoral||A poem describing the life and manners of shepherds; a poem in which the speakers assume the character of shepherds; an idyll|
|pathetic fallacy||poetic practice of attributing human emotion or responses to nature, inanimate objects, or animals. The practice is a form of personification that is as old as poetry, in which it has always been common to find smiling or dancing flowers, angry or cruel winds, brooding mountains, moping owls, or happy larks.|
|Epic||A literary or dramatic composition that resembles an extended narrative poem celebrating heroic feats.|
|Tragedy||A drama or literary work in which the main character is brought to ruin or suffers extreme sorrow, especially as a consequence of a tragic flaw, moral weakness, or inability to cope with unfavorable circumstances.|
|Tragic Hero||A tragic hero is a literary character who makes errors in judgment, usually in his or her actions, that inevitably leads to his or her own demise (death)|
|Tragic Flaw||A flaw in the character of the protagonist of a tragedy that brings the protagonist to ruin or sorrow|
|Hubris||Overbearing pride or presumption; arrogance:|
|Stanza||One of the divisions of a poem, composed of two or more lines usually characterized by a common pattern of meter, rhyme, and number of lines|
|Couplet||A unit of verse consisting of two successive lines, usually rhyming and having the same meter and often forming a complete thought or syntactic unit.|
|Cavalier Poets|| English poets of the 17th century, who came from the classes that supported King Charles I during the English Civil War. Much of their poetry is light in style, and generally secular in subject. |
Robert Herrick, Richard Lovelace, Ben Jonson
|Metaphysical Poets|| a loose group of British lyric poets of the 17th century, who shared an interest in metaphysical concerns and a common way of investigating them, and whose work was characterised by inventiveness of metaphor (these involved comparisons being known as metaphysical conceits).|
John Donne & Andrew Marvelle
|Carpe Diem||seize the day|
|Protagonist||the principal character in a literary work|
|Antagonist||One that contends w/ or opposes another|
|Persona||a character assumed by an author in a written work|
|The Great Chain of Being|| a classical Christian and Western medieval concept detailing a strict, hierarchical structure of all matter and life, believed to have been decreed by God.|
|Alliteration||the commencement of two or more words of a word group with the same letter, as in apt alliteration's artful aid.|
|the happy fault or fall||...|
|Soliloquy||A dramatic or literary form of discourse in which a character talks to himself or herself or reveals his or her thoughts without addressing a listener.|
|Neoplatonic Conception of Love||Platonic love is a chaste and strong type of love that is non-sexual (Example, a best friend). The term "platonic love" can also be referred to as a secret love or an unrequited love.|
|Pandemonium||the abode of all demons in hell|
|Irony||a technique of indicating, as through character or plot development, an intention or attitude opposite to that which is actually or ostensibly stated.|
|The Character in Hamlet||Hamlet - The Prince of Denmark, the title character, and the protagonist. |
Claudius - The King of Denmark, Hamlet's uncle, and the play's antagonist. The villain of the play, .
Gertrude - The Queen of Denmark, Hamlet's mother, recently married to Claudius.
Polonius - The Lord Chamberlain of Claudius's court, a pompous, conniving old man. Polonius is the father of Laertes and Ophelia.
Horatio - Hamlet's close friend, who studied with the prince at the university in Wittenberg. Horatio is loyal and helpful to Hamlet throughout the play.
Ophelia - Polonius's daughter, a beautiful young woman with whom Hamlet has been in love.
Laertes - Polonius's son and Ophelia's brother, a young man who spends much of the play in France.
Fortinbras - The young Prince of Norway, whose father the king (also named Fortinbras) was killed by Hamlet's father (also named Hamlet).
The Ghost - The specter of Hamlet's recently deceased father. The ghost, who claims to have been murdered by Claudius, calls upon Hamlet to avenge him.
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern - Two slightly bumbling courtiers, former friends of Hamlet from Wittenberg, who are summoned by Claudius and Gertrude to discover the cause of Hamlet's strange behavior.
Osric - The foolish courtier who summons Hamlet to his duel with Laertes.
Voltimand and Cornelius - Courtiers whom Claudius sends to Norway to persuade the king to prevent Fortinbras from attacking.
Marcellus and Bernardo - The officers who first see the ghost walking the ramparts of Elsinore and who summon Horatio to witness it. Marcellus is present when Hamlet first encounters the ghost.
Francisco - A soldier and guardsman at Elsinore.
Reynaldo - Polonius's servant, who is sent to France by Polonius to check up on and spy on Laertes
|Characters in Paradise Lost||Satan - Head of the rebellious angels who have just fallen from Heaven. As the poem's antagonist, Satan is the originator of |
Adam - The first human, the father of our race, and, along with his wife Eve,
Eve - The first woman and the mother of mankind.
God the Father -
Belial - One of the principal devils in Hell. Belial argues against further war with Heaven, but he does so because he is an embodiment of sloth and inactivity,.
Mammon - A devil known in the Bible as the epitome of wealth. Mammon always walks hunched over, as if he is searching the ground for valuables.
Mulciber - The devil who builds Pandemonium, Satan's palace in Hell.
Moloch - A rash, irrational, and murderous devil. Moloch argues in Pandemonium that the devils should engage in another full war against God and his servant angels.
Sin - Satan's daughter, who sprang full-formed from Satan's head when he was still in Heaven. Sin has the shape of a woman above the waist, that of a serpent below, and her middle is ringed about with Hell Hounds, who periodically burrow into her womb and gnaw her entrails. She guards the gates of Hell.
Death - Satan's son by his daughter, Sin. Death in turn rapes his mother, begetting the mass of beasts that torment her lower half.
Gabriel - One of the archangels of Heaven, who acts as a guard at the Garden of Eden.
Raphael - One of the archangels in Heaven, who acts as one of God's messengers. Raphael informs Adam of Satan's plot to seduce them into sin, and also narrates the story of the fallen angels, as well as the fall of Satan.
Uriel - An angel who guards the planet earth. Uriel is the angel whom Satan tricks when he is disguised as a cherub.
Abdiel - An angel who at first considers joining Satan in rebellion but argues against Satan and the rebel angels and returns to God. His character demonstrates the power of repentance.
Michael - The chief of the archangels, Michael leads the angelic forces against Satan and his followers in the battle in Heaven,
|Ben Jonson||Published his "works.........joined the english forces....converted to catholicism in prison (released due to his knowledge of latin)..suspect in gunpowder plot.. stroke partially paralyzed... works ( on my first son, on gut, song to celia, to the memory of my beloved (William Shakespeare), Ode to himself|
|John Donne||poems abound w/ startling, absurd images. Father of the metaphysical conceit. Catholic- English Church- Poverty (for marrying a young niece of his employer) to ordained English Church minister (only means of advancement)-|
|Robert Herrick||most devoted of the sons of ben.. uses the ideas of carpe diem, metamorphosis, .. pleasures of food, drink , and the beauty of surfaces.. (delight in disorder, to the virgins to make much of times, upon julia's close)|
|Andrew Marvel||wrote far less than donne, jonson, or herbert did, but his range in some ways is far greater. overriding concern ART..many of his works published by housekeeper.. helped milton avoid execution/imprisonment....poems deal w/ fundamental dichotomies of the human condition. (to his coy mistress, the definition of love)|
|Richard Lovelace||quintessential cavalier poet, poems often exalt women, hono, love... "to althea from prison" he finds freedom from external bondage in the Cavalier ideal of women, wine, royalism. Fought in the kings army.. (to lucasta- conflict between love & honor, the grasshopper- summer creature symbolizes the loss of the king and the carefree cavalier life of the puritan "winter"..poor in late life|
|John Milton||proclaimed himself the future author of a great english epic. in poems/prose milton often refers to crises in his own life (blindness).. very concerened w/ genre (however he infused each genre w/ new energy)....|