renaissance

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Medici

aristocratic Italian family of powerful merchants and bankers who ruled Florence in the 15th century

Ghiberti

The Italian sculptor and goldsmith who was best known for the doors to the baptistery of Florence's cathedral, and another set of doors which was called "The Gates to Paradise". He also wrote one of the earliest autobiographies by an artist, which is crucial to those studying the art and culture of the time (1378-1455).

Brunelleschi

An architect who boldly combined classical and Gothic architecture. He used geometry as the basis for his designs, focusing on spheres and planes. He built the dome on the cathedral in Florence, starting in 1420. He also is given credit for being the first to understand and use perspective, although it was immediately used more clearly in sculpture and painting., Italian architect celebrated for his work during the Florentine Renaissance. His greatest achievement is the octagonal ribbed dome of the Florence cathedral.

Donatello

(1386-1466) Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature., David in bronze

Linear Perspective

the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer. ALSO - An artistic principle developed in the Renaissance that allowed a painter to create a greater illusion that before. The principle is based on all horizontal lines going towards one or two points on the horizon or at eye level, while vertical lines remain vertical. This was based on the new idea of having a certain perspective with which one should view a painting.

Atmospheric Perspective

The illusion of depth produced in graphic works by lightening values, softening details and textures, reducing value contrasts, and neutralizing colors in objects as they recede

Orthogonals

Diagonal lines, imagined to be perpendicular to the picture plane and receding away from the viewer. In one-point perspective, the orthogonals are understood to be parallel to each other and to converge at a vanishing point.

Horizontal Line

A line that travels right to left. Comes from "horizon" which is the line created where the land meets the sky., an element of art with a calm connotation

vanishing point

the point beyond which something disappears or ceases to exist. A point in space, usually located on the horizon, where parallel edges of an object appear to converge.

Saint Augustine

early christian leader who writes the book City of God that instructs how Christians are to be, (Roman Catholic Church) one of the great fathers of the early Christian church

Francis of Assisi

1181-1226 Italian monk who founded the Franciscan order; he devoted his life to serving the poor and sick, Son of wealthy merchant; he renounced his wealth and chose a harsh life of poverty; later founded the Holy Order of St. Francis.

Saint George

Donatello, 1415-16, free standing statue

Saint Jerome

Known for his translating the Bible into Latin, wrote The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary, translating old and new testiment into latin 32 years,sex cant be enjoyed,stay virgin,point sysytem, translated the bible into latin

Saint Stephen

The Church's first martyr

Saint Mark

Donatello. Early Renaissance Sculpture (1411-1413) Contrappasto. 1st with voluminous drapery.
Stirring limbs., Apostle and companion of Saint Peter

Contrapposto

put all weight on one leg, causes hips to shift and shoulders to counter balance, which sets up potential for natural pose

Zuccone

Donatello

Gentile da Fabriano

1385-1427, International style master, Italy, sucessfully blended naturalistic details of Late Gothic spleder in color, costume and framing. Adoration of the Magi, Santa Trinita, Florence, Italy

Masaccio

The ranaissance artist who led the way in establishing a new style of employing deep space, modeling , and anatomical correctness., Tribute Money, the Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden, Brancacci Chapel, Florence, Italy

Tribute Money

Masaccio: Advancements in perspective and naturalism, halos, foreshortening, realistic landscapes

Holy Trinity

Masaccio fresco

Palazzo Medici

Florence, Italy 1445 Michelozzo, new building type. courtyard plan. heavy masonry blocks. large cornice. design reflects awareness of traditional florentine domestic buildings.

rustication

Heavy stonework with a surface left rough, or with deeply channelled joints, used principally on Renaissance buildings

Botticelli

Italian painter of mythological and religious paintings (1444-1510)

Ghirlandaio

Giovanna Tornabuoni, Birth of the Virgin

Condottieri

mercenary soldiers who fought battles between city-states, or a leader of a private band of mercenary soldiers in Italy, esp. in the 14th and 15th centuries., professional fighting men of Renaissance Italy - ex. of individualism. Machiavelli warned against dependency on these for military defence. Advocated a militia instead.

Alberti

Italian architect and painter, He helped develop the modern concept of ego with his famous slogan "Men can do all things if they will"., Florantine Renaissance Arhcitecht, wrote On Family Life about how women are stupid and should stay at home, Rennaissance humanist who said "man can do all things if he will." Wrote De Pictura which taught perspective.

Palazzo Rucellai

Alberti, palace, 3 orders of pilasters, roman style arches, suppose to resemble to coliseum

Fra Filippo Lippi

Italian painter whose works show a three-dimensional style, monk. shows emotion, compositional movement and style. emphasized drawing, line contours, about shape, grace and elements, more humanization, known for tender Madonna With Child's and transparent drapery

Perugino

This artist painted "Delivery of the Keys" and "The Galitzin Triptych", __________ (1450-1523) was a friend of Leonardo da Vinci and had great influence on the young Raphael who worked with im early in his career.

Mantegna

_________'s masterpiece was a series of frescoes (1465-74) for the Camera degli Sposi (bridal chamber) of the Palazzo Ducale where his portraits of the ruling family and his study of the art of illusionistic perspective became the prototpe of illusionistic ceiling painting that was to become an important element of baroque and rococo art.

Francesca

Pioneered perspective, later used by da Vinci in "The Last Supper.", painter-scientific, intellectual approach, unemotional figures, neglected motion, but had a hushed serenity.

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