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What is diffusion, and what is the end result?

Diffusion is the transport of things across the cell membrane does not require energy and the end result is equilibrium aka homeostasis. In diffusion things move from high to low concentration. Natural kinetic energy (energy of motion) no energy is produced for diffusion.

What is osmosis? Describe what happens to a cell in hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solutions.

Diffusion of water inside and outside of a cell, during osmosis the equal amount of solute and solution inside and outside a cell is trying to be maintained. Hypertonic cells shrivel up because there is more solute outside a cell (Plasmolysis). Hypotonic cells take in too much water because there is more solute inside the cell (Cytolysis). Isotonic cells are cells where the inside and outside of the cell are equal and water moves in and out of the cell. Aquaporens: pores that let in water.

How do sugar molecules enter cells?

Facilitated diffusion

Know the characteristics of facilitated diffusion

Facilitated diffusion is a types of passive transport uses transport proteins to move materials from high to low concentrations. Facilitated diffusion move amino acids and glucose. Two types of transport proteins are channel proteins and carrier proteins. Channel proteins: embedded in the membrane, pores passive. Carrier proteins: bond to molecules and drag proteins across the cell membrane. Some carrier proteins change shape to move thing across the membranes and do not extend across the cell membrane.

What types of transport require energy, and what types do not?

Needs energy- Active transport Low to High energy
Doesn't need energy- passive transport high to low energy

How does the sodium-potassium pump work? Hint: drawing on page 104

Moves 3 sodium ions out of the cell for every 2 potassium ions it moves in. Is a type of active transport. LOOK AT NOTECARD

What happens to a plant cell when placed in a hypertonic environment?

It will shrivel up and die, plasmolysis

C/C endocytosis and exocytosis

Both are types of active transport and move things for the cell. Endocytosis: moves large particles into a cell. Pinocytosis- taking in large liquid drops "cell drinking" Phagocytosis- take in particles "cell eating" Receptor Mediated Endocytosis- protein receptors recognizing hormones to help move them. Exocytosis: The movement of large particles out of a cell. Waste is moved out of the cell in vesicles that fuse with the ell membrane to release the waste. Opposite of endocytosis.

List some life processes for which energy is required.

Running, white blood cells engulfing bacteria, sodium-potassium pump.

The sun

ATP because ATP fuels cells which make up all living things.

Know what is photosynthesis, grana, and fermentation.

Photosynthesis- the use of carbon dioxide and water to produce food for the plant takes place in the chloroplast and produces glucose and oxygen (O2 into atmosphere) Grana- stacks of thylakiod Fermentation- the process that occurs when there is no oxygen to carry on aerobic respiration

Why is photosynthesis considered to be a biochemical pathway?

Because the the reactants of cellular respiration are the products of photosynthesis and the reactants of photosynthesis are the products of cellular respiration it is a cycle that keeps itself going so it makes a biological pathway for itself. Biological pathway = biological cycle.

Why is chlorophyll green?

Because chlorophyll a and b cannot absorb the color green, so the green light is reflected so we can see it. In the summer leaves change color because the amount of chlorophyll is a lot less and the leaves take the rich hues of carotenoids.

Name the atmospheric byproduct of photosynthesis.

Oxygen that is released as a product of photosynthesis.

How are glycolysis and aerobic respiration different?

Glycolysis: Glucose is into 3 carbon molecules of pyruvic acid produces a small amount of ATP (2) and NADH does not require oxygen Aerobic respiration: with oxygen pryruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make a large amount of ATP (32-34)

******What products of the light reaction are needed for the Calvin cycle? Know the Calvin cycle (when does it take place, what is the end product, etc.)

O2

What product of photosynthesis is used for cellular respiration?

oxygen and glucose

What happens in cellular respiration, and why is it important?

Glucose water, and oxygen are used to make make carbon dioxide and water. It is important because it makes energy for the cell ( 38 ATP) and the products of it are the reactants for photosynthesis

List all the parts of cellular respiration

Glycosis, Aerobic Respiration.

Why is the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration described as a cycle?

because the products of photosynthesis are the reactants in cellular respiration and the products of cellular respiration are the reactants of photosynthesis, so it is never ending.

What process of photosynthesis takes place in the thylakoid membrane?

Chemiosmosis.

Be able to write the chemical equation for photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

6CO2 + 6H2O ---> C6 H12 O6 + 6O2, CellR:C6 H12 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

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