a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning.
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
law of effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
(Skinner box) a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note, this is not the same thing as punishment.)
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer.
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs; extinction occurs rapidly
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows (vs. reinforcement); reinforcement increases a behavior, punishment decreases it
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
learning by observing others
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior.
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response.
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response.
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning).
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli it DN control (vs. operant). A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning.
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
human capacity to learn new behaviors that enable us to cope with changing circumstances
a relatively pemanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience, we learn by association
reintroducing captive animals
requires nature (needed genetics) and nurture (history of appropriate learning)
response diminishes due to repetitive stimulus
process of learning associations
learn to associate two stimuli and to thus anticipate events
associate a response (our behavior) and consequence and thus to repeat good acts & avoid bad acts
learn from others' experience and by examples, learn things we never experience or observe
classical conditioning: salivation study (originally digestion study)
John B. Watson
searched for laws underlying learning, behaviorism, built off Pavlov
urged psychologists to discard reference to inner thoughts, feelings, motives and to study how organisms respond to environmental stimuli (goal: objective prediction & control of observable behavior)
consciousness, belief that basic learning same for all species; disdained by Watson & Pavlov (ignored importance of cognitive processes such as thoughts, perceptions, expectations and biological constraints); modern scientists believe in these mental processes
5 major conditioning processes
acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recoverty, generalization, discrimination
showed hos CS signals an important biological event by conditional sexual arousal of birds (capacity for classical conditioning aids reproduction)
Michael Olson and Russell Fazio
Pokemon & word associations
believed learned behaviors could be reduced to mindless mechanisms, presumed cognition unnecessary
Robert Rescorla, Allan Wagner
animals learn predictability and expectancy
ex: cognition (knowing) reduces effectiness of CS-US associations
Extending Pavlov's Understanding
cognitive processes, biological predispositions
Pavlov, Watson, Kimble (at first)
believed basic laws of learning same for all animals, disregards biological predispositions
challenged prevailing idea that associations can be learned equally well by all animals
Taste Aversion, Rat Radiation (Garcia, Koelling)
1) even with a UR several hours after novel taste, rats learned to avoid that flavor (vs. immediately following rule, because of adaptability)
2) rats developed aversions to tastes but not sight/sound (despite ability to perceive) b/c rats depend on taste, birds on sight
stronger conditioning if CS is ecologically relevant
learning enables animals to adapt to their environment
classical conditioning is a basic form of learning, how to study learning objectively
Little Albert (Watson & Rosalie Rayner)
conditioned fear in child, generalization to all animals
law of effect (rewarded behavior is likely to recur), developed behavioral technology/principles of behavior control; critizes for discounting importance of cognitive processes and predispositions
rewarding as animal gets closer and closer to desired behavior and ignore all other behaviors
will learn to discriminate stimulus after seeing other categories (ex: recognize human faces, green traffic lights) reinforces a response and reinforces categorization
(operant conditioning) event that strengthns the behavior preceding it
innately reinforcing stimulus (such as one that satisfies a biological need)
conditioned reinforcer (secondary reinforcer)
stimulus that gains its reinforcing power thru association w/ primary reinforcer; enhances ability to influence one another
(operant conditioning) reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses; high rate of responding (frequent flyers)
(operant) reinforces after an unpredictable number of responses; high rates of responding b/c reinforcers increase as responses increase (gambling, salespersons)
(operant) reinforces only after specified time; choppy start-stop pattern of responses (cookie checkers)
(operant) reinfores a response at unpredictable time intervals; produces slow, steady responding
problems with human punishment
issues w/ punishment
1) behavior is suppressed not forgetten, may reappear in safe settings (child learns discrimination: no response in certain areas)
2) increase aggressiveness
3) create fear (avoid school)
4) does not guide to more positive behavior
postive punishment: administer adverse stimulus
negative: withdraw desirable stimulus
latent learning, animals develop cognitive map; more to learning than association a response w/ a consequence, there is also cognition
learning apparent only when there is incentive to demonstrate it
desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
desire to perform due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
undermine intrinsic motivation
biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive (ex: hamsters easily learn to dig for food but DN learn to wash their face for food)
back to biologically predisposed patterns
controversially insisted external influences (not internal feelings) shape behavior and urged operant conditioning; called dehumanizing
Applications of Operant Conditioning
1) students must be given feedback imediately
2) behavioral sports training: through shaping
3) reward well-defined and achievable tasks, immediate
4) ppl who pay own electric costs, use less energy
classical vs. operant conditioning
both froms of associative learning, involve 5 stages
through classical (Pavlovian) an organism associates diff stimuli it DN control and responds automatically
through operant, organism associates its operate behaviors (its actions on the environment) with conswequences
cultural elements transmitted by observational learning
observational learning, Bobo doll; antisocial models have antisocial effects (abusive parents have abusive children)
positive, constructive, helpful behavior (present in lives of civil rights activists)
correlational studies link violence w/ viewing violent behavior (observational learning, imitation, desensitization)