Civics and Law Midterm Exam

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immigrants

Political machines bribed ...for their votes in exchange for jobs.

Political machines

...bribed immigrant for their votes in exchange for jobs.

unusually shaped voting districts

Creation of ... designed to favor a particular party or candidate is known as Gerrymandering.

Gerrymandering

Creation of unusually shaped voting districts designed to favor a particular party or candidate is known as...

Issue Saliency

Political scientists and professional pollsters have discovered that people tend to vote if a political party's policy agenda or an election involves issues they consider relevant and important to their daily lives, a phenomenon known as

election involves issues they consider relevant and important to their daily lives,

Political scientists and professional pollsters have discovered that people tend to vote if a political party's policy agenda or ... a phenomenon known as Issue Saliency.

The Federal Election Commission

...(FEC) mandates that any contribution of more than $5,000 be reported within 48 hours of its receipt.

contribution of more than 5,000 be reported within 48 hours of its receipt.

The Federal Election Commission (FEC) mandates that any ..

The Iowa Caucuses

... the New Hampshire Primary, and Super Tuesday are key elements of the contemporary presidential nominating process.

the New Hampshire Primary

The Iowa Caucuses... and Super Tuesday are key elements of the contemporary presidential nominating process.

Super Tuesday

The Iowa Caucuses, the New Hampshire Primary, and ... are key elements of the contemporary presidential nominating process.

the contemporary presidential nominating process.

The Iowa Caucuses, the New Hampshire Primary, and Super Tuesday are key elements of

The McCain-Feingold Act

...closed many loopholes in campaign finance laws, greatly restricting the use of 'soft money'.

soft money

The McCain-Feingold Act closed many loopholes in campaign finance laws, greatly restricting the use of

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

shaped the meaning of 'implied powers' by ruling that Congress was within its constitutional authority to establish a national bank.

implied powers

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) shaped the meaning of ... by ruling that Congress was within its constitutional authority to establish a national bank.

The Republican Party

... emerged in the 1850s, in part as a response to the issue of slavery.

1850s

The Republican Party emerged in the... in part as a response to the issue of slavery.

the issue of slavery

The Republican Party emerged in the 1850s, in part as a response to

The Federalist Papers

...were in written to present arguments favor of ratifying the Constitution.

favor of ratifying the Constitution

The Federalist Papers were in written to present arguments in

Concurrent powers.

The power to tax, to borrow money, and to define crimes and punish criminals are all examples of

define crimes and punish criminals

The power to tax, to borrow money, and to ... are all examples of Concurrent powers.

habeas corpus.

This principle ensures that citizens of the United States cannot be held in custody indefinitely

citizens of the United States

This principle ensures that ...cannot be held in custody indefinitely habeas corpus.

"right to rebel"

The idea of a ...influenced American patriots and also found its way into the American Declaration of Independence. This concept was initially expressed by John Lockes.

John Locke

The idea of a "right to rebel" influenced American patriots and also found its way into the American Declaration of Independence. This concept was initially expressed by

American patriots

The idea of a "right to rebel" influenced ... and also found its way into the American Declaration of Independence. This concept was initially expressed by John Lockes

Miranda v. Arizona (1966)

In ... the Supreme Court ruled that a person accused of a crime must be advised of their Fifth Amendment rights.

a person accused of a crime must be advised of their Fifth Amendment rights.

In Miranda v. Arizona (1966) the Supreme Court ruled that ...

Thomas Hobbes

... endorsed a view of human nature that life was "short, poor, nasty, brutish, and short" and that, given these circumstances, people required a strong absolute ruler.

view of human nature

Thomas Hobbes endorsed a ... that life was "short, poor, nasty, brutish, and short" and that, given these circumstances, people required a strong absolute ruler.

Devolution

The scaling back of the size and the activities of the federal government which began under the Clinton Administration is known as

Clinton Administration

The scaling back of the size and the activities of the federal government which began under the ... is known as Devolution.

Leave No Child Behind Act [2001]

One of the primary criticisms leveled against the ... is that it is an example of an unfunded mandate.

unfunded mandate.

One of the primary criticisms leveled against the Leave No Child Behind Act [2001] is that it is an example of an

Thomas Paine's

...influence on early American politics can be found in Common Sense.

Common Sense

Thomas Paine's influence on early American politics can be found in

Marbury v. Madison.

This Supreme Court case established the principle of judicial review

judicial review

This Supreme Court case established the principle of ... Marbury v. Madison.

Senate

The ... has a constitutionally sanctioned ability to confirm executive branch appointments and ratify treaties.

confirm executive branch appointments and ratify treaties.

The Senate has a constitutionally sanctioned ability to

filibuster

A is a mechanism by which a senator can literally 'talk a bill to death' by forcing the Senate to end further discussions on a bill.

talk a bill to death

A filibuster is a mechanism by which a senator can literally ...by forcing the Senate to end further discussions on a bill.

Magna Carta

One of the earliest examples of limits being placed on a government, in this case the English monarchy, occurred in the thirteenth century with the signing of the

limits being placed on a government

One of the earliest examples of ... in this case the English monarchy, occurred in the thirteenth century with the signing of the Magna Carta.

Constitution popular sovereignty

This constitutional principle establishes that all power rests with the people, and that the people have given the government its power, via consent, through the

all power rests with the people

This constitutional principle establishes that ...and that the people have given the government its power, via consent, through the Constitution popular sovereignty.

Federalist Party

The first political party system in the United States included the ... and the Democratic-Republican Party.

Democratic-Republican Party.

The first political party system in the United States included the Federalist Party and the

FALSE STATEMENTS

All of the following are current requirements for House members and Senators EXCEPT election for members of the House; selection by state legislature for senators.

to ensure banks deal fairly with consumers.

What is the obligation of the Federal Reserve?
To lower taxes to promote spending, put tariffs on imports to promote domestic buying, to raise or lower interest rates, to implement monetary policy

obligation of the Federal Reserve

To lower taxes to promote spending, put tariffs on imports to promote domestic buying, to raise or lower interest rates, to implement monetary policy, to ensure banks deal fairly with consumers.

oligarchy

A government in which power is shared among an exclusive group is known as a/n:

A monarchy

What is the Divine Right of Rule? -... This means that someone is born with the right to rule, they can not just become a ruler, they have to be born with the right to do so.

Divine Right of Rule

A monarchy, This means that someone is born with the right to rule, they can not just become a ruler, they have to be born with the right to do so.

promotes majority rule without violating minority rights,

What is "The traditional Theory of Democracy"?- ... maintaining the willingness to compromise, and recognizing the worth and dignity of all people.

The traditional Theory of Democracy

promotes majority rule without violating minority rights, maintaining the willingness to compromise, and recognizing the worth and dignity of all people.

Hyperpluralists

...differ from pluralists in that: groups of people have power and heavily influence the government.

groups of people have power and heavily influence the government

Hyperpluralists

The Federalist papers 10 and 51

Hyperpluralist concerns about participation in the government process are grounded in concerns expressed in what documents?

public policy

The plan or approach that policy makers enact and implement in response to a particular problem or issue in society is known as?

remains a monarchy without a written constitution,

What is true about the contemporary government in Great Britain today? -
It ... but its government is strictly parliamentary, based on the Magna Carta, Petition of Rights, and English Bill of Rights.

based on the Magna Carta, Petition of Rights, and English Bill of Rights.

What is true about the contemporary government in Great Britain today?
It remains a monarchy without a written constitution, but its government is strictly parliamentary,

1650-1800s, development of democracy

The Enlightenment, or The Age of Reason, occurred during what time period?

The natural world is best understood through close observation and reason.

Many Enlightenment political philosophers based their theories on what belief?

constant state of conflict and insecurity

What was Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan view of human nature? -That people would be in a ... looking out only for themselves and their interests. The trade-off for these benefits would be surrendering some of their natural rights.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau's theories

- that government should act for the good of all people and that people have a social responsibility and civic duty to be involved in their governance. He further believed that living in a society provides people the security and freedom to develop new skills, which in turn strengthens the society and leads to growth.

government should act for the good of all people

What were Jean-Jacques Rousseau's theories?- that...and that people have a social responsibility and civic duty to be involved in their governance. He further believed that living in a society provides people the security and freedom to develop new skills, which in turn strengthens the society and leads to growth.

The magna Carta, authority withheld consent.

During the early seventeenth century, the English Parliament used t his power to coerce the king to sign the Petition of Right:

the English Parliament

During the early seventeenth century, ...used t his power to coerce the king to sign the Petition of Right: The magna Carta, authority withheld consent.

English bill of rights

In the late seventeenth century, William and Mary had to agree to sign this document as a precondition for becoming the King and Queen of England. What was the document?

oligarchies, dictatorship, monarchy, democracy.

What are the four types of Government that are found throughout our history?

it defined the first time England questioned the monarch's power and came up with a sort of democracy.

Why was the Magna Carta such a Landmark Document?

monarchs abusing their power was wrong

What did the Petition of Rights Refute, and identify the concepts of the English Bill Of Rights?- It was saying ... and the concepts of the English Bill of Right were Tyrants were limited with their power, the barons were given more power. parliament also had power.

studied philosophy at Oxford

Thomas Hobbes -was born on April 5,1588 -traveled to Europe a few times -published a book, Leviathan -met Galileo - and

traveled to Europe a few times

Thomas Hobbes -was born on April 5,1588...-published a book, Leviathan -met Galileo - and studied philosophy at Oxford

wrote The Two Treatises of Government

John Locke -Died October 28, 1704 -taught philosophy at Oxford -was friends with Sir Isaac Newton -lived in Holland -and

was friends with Sir Isaac Newton

John Locke -Died October 28, 1704 -taught philosophy at Oxford -... -lived in Holland -and wrote The Two Treatises of Government

the preamble

3 major parts of the Declaration of Independence - ... a reflection of what Thomas Paine said in Common Sense, and philosophies of John Locke.

a reflection of what Thomas Paine said in Common Sense,

3 major parts of the Declaration of Independence - the preamble, ... and philosophies of John Locke.

philosophies of John Locke.

3 major parts of the Declaration of Independence - the preamble, a reflection of what Thomas Paine said in Common Sense, and

he built his house Monticello

Five facts about Thomas Jefferson are, he wrote the Declaration of Independence, ... he was president of the United States from 1801-1809, He was born in Albermarle County, Virginia, and he had six children.

He was born in Albermarle County, Virginia

Five facts about Thomas Jefferson are, he wrote the Declaration of Independence, he built his house, Monticello, he was president of the United States from 1801-1809, ..., and he had six children.

Breaking from foreign dominion

What Paine says must happen before America can be happy -...is the what Thomas Paine says must happen before America can be happy.

selective incorporation

In Gitlow v New York, the Supreme Court established the doctrine of?

10

How many Amendments are in the Bill of Rights?

it gives the right to freedom of speech, religion, press, and assembly.

Why is the 1st Amendment considered to be the most important one?

Protections of criminal

The English Bill of Rights and the U.S. Bill of Rights included rights and protections relating to all the following:Right to petition the government, ...defendants, Freedom of Speech, Right to bear Arms

total of 27.

How many Amendments does the Constitution of the United States have?

when a nation has two governments that share the same constituents.

Federalism.

enumerated, implied, and inherent.

What are the 3 types of Delegated Powers?

Dual Federalism and Cooperative Federalism

What are the 2 Multiple layers of Federalism?

federal, concurrent, and the reserved (state) powers

What are the powers of government

to get rid of the elitism and expand the average person's political possibilities

Democratic Platform

defending the highly protected tariffs and the federal authority.

Whig Platform

Race,

factors that determine party identification:whichever party a person chooses or prefers. ... gender, income, religious views

religious views

whichever party a person chooses or prefers. Race, gender, income, ...

Race, Age, Gender, Education, and Socio-Economic status

5 demographic categories

six-person bipartisan

Federal Election Commission- The Federal Election Commission (FEC) is a ... created by the Federal Election Campaign Act in 1974. It is where the FEC are responsible for the following the financial laws of campaigning and contributing to public funding for presidential campaigns.

Federal Election Campaign Act in 1974.

Federal Election Commission- The Federal Election Commission (FEC) is a six-person bipartisan created by the ... It is where the FEC are responsible for the following the financial laws of campaigning and contributing to public funding for presidential campaigns.

an unlimited amount of years (but representative are elected every two years, and senators are elected every six years.)

How many years can a member of Congress serve?

535

How many members of Congress are there?

435 Representatives, 100 senators

How many Representatives and Senators are there?

requirements to run for a spot in the House

to be at least 25 years old when seated, to have been a citizen of the United States for at least 7 years, to live in the state they are representing, and it is customary that they live in the district that they represent.

unlimited amount of terms (but they are elected every six years.)

How many years can a senator serve?

qualifications for a Senator?

a citizen of the United States for 9 years, be at least 30 years old, and live in the state they are representing.

democracy

A form of government, a system of selecting policymakers, and a way of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public's preferences.

dictatorship

A form of government in which one person controls all aspects of governing, the general population has little or no political participation, and their rights are restricted.

direct democracy

System or process that depends on the voice of the people (and not representatives), usually through referendums or initiatives, to make public policy decisions.

elite and class theory

A theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization.

hyperpluralism

A theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened. Hyperpluralism is an extreme, exaggerated, or perverted form of pluralism.

indirect democracy

A system, also called "representative democracy," in which the people elect representatives to run the government and express their sentiments.

linkage institutions

The channels or access points through which issues and people's policy preferences get on the government's policy agenda. In the United States, elections, political parties, and interest groups are the three main linkage institutions.

monarchy

Form of government in which one person has control, claiming power comes from "divine rights" passed from one generation of the royal class to the next.

oligarchy

Form of government, sometimes called "dictatorship of the party," in which power is shared among an exclusive group, and people have few rights and limited participation in government.

pluralist theory

A theory of government and politics emphasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies.

policy agenda

According to John Kingdon, "the list of subjects or problems to which government officials, and people outside of government closely associated with those officials, are paying some serious attention at any given time."

policy-making institutions

The branches of government charged with taking action on political issues. The U.S. Constitution established three policymaking institutions: the Congress, the presidency, and the courts. Today, the power of the bureaucracy is so great that most political scientists consider it a fourth policymaking institution.

policy-making system

The process by which political problems are communicated by the voters and acted upon by government policymakers. The policymaking system begins with people's needs and expectations for governmental action. When people confront government officials with problems that they want solved, they are trying to influence the government's policy agenda. Also called "Policy-Making Cycle."

political socialization

According to Richard Dawson, "the process through which an individual acquires his [or her] particular political orientations--his [or her] knowledge, feelings, and evaluations regarding his [or her] political world."

public policy

A choice that government makes in response to a political issue. A policy is a course of action taken with regard to some problem.

representative monarchy

A form of government in which the monarch is more of a figurehead than a dictator, and the people have political and civil rights and can participate in parliamentary government.

republic

A form of government that derives its power, directly or indirectly, from the people. Those chosen to govern are accountable to those whom they govern. In contrast to a direct democracy, in which people themselves make laws, people in a republic select representatives who make the laws.

traditional democratic theory

A theory about how a democratic government makes its decisions. According to Robert Dahl, its cornerstones are equality in voting, effective participation, enlightened understanding, final control over the agenda, and inclusion.

The obligation of the Federal Reserve

To lower taxes to promote spending, put tariffs on imports to promote domestic buying, to raise or lower interest rates, to implement monetary policy, to ensure banks deal fairly with consumers.

oligarchy

A government in which power is shared among an exclusive group is known as a/n:

The Divine Right of Rule

A monarchy,This means that someone is born with the right to rule, they can not just become a ruler, they have to be born with the right to do so.

The traditional Theory of Democracy

promotes majority rule without violating minority rights, maintaining the willingness to compromise, and recognizing the worth and dignity of all people.

groups of people have power and heavily influence the government.

Hyperpluralists differ from pluralists in that

The Federalist papers 10 and 51

Hyperpluralist concerns about participation in the government process are grounded in concerns expressed in what documents?

Public policy

The plan or approach that policy makers enact and implement in response to a particular problem or issue in society is known as

It remains a monarchy without a written constitution, but its government is strictly parliamentary, based on the Magna Carta, Petition of Rights, and English Bill of Rights.

What is true about the contemporary government in Great Britain today?

1650-1800s, development of democracy

The Enlightenment, or The Age of Reason, occurred during what time period?

That the natural world is best understood through close observation and reason.

Many Enlightenment political philosophers based their theories on what belief?

Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan view of human nature.

That people would be in a constant state of conflict and insecurity, looking out only for themselves and their interests. The trade-off for these benefits would be surrendering some of their natural rights.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau's theories

that government should act for the good of all people and that people have a social responsibility and civic duty to be involved in their governance. He further believed that living in a society provides people the security and freedom to develop new skills, which in turn strengthens the society and leads to growth.

John Locke

The idea of a "right to rebel" influenced American patriots and also found its way into the American Declaration of Independence. This concept was initially expressed by whom?

The Magna Carta, authority withheld consent.

During the early seventeenth century, the English Parliament used t his power to coerce the king to sign the Petition of Right:

English bill of rights

In the late seventeenth century, William and Mary had to agree to sign this document as a precondition for becoming the King and Queen of England. What was the document?

oligarchies, dictatorship, monarchy, democracy.

What are the four types of Government that are found throughout our history?

government, defined land representative, people

What are the four characteristics that a Nation State must have to exist?

public goods and transportation, political socialization, knowledge and understanding of government laws, protection,employment

What are the six basic and essential needs of the people?

Because it defined the first time England questioned the monarch's power and came up with a sort of democracy.

Why was the Magna Carta such a Landmark Document?

5 facts about Thomas Hobbes.

Thomas Hobbes -was born on April 5,1588 -traveled to Europe a few times -published a book, Leviathan -met Galileo - and studied philosophy at Oxford

5 facts about John Locke.

John Locke -Died October 28, 1704 -taught philosophy at Oxford -was friends with Sir Isaac Newton -lived in Holland -and wrote The Two Treatises of Government

Consent of the governed

when the people agree to whatever the government or congress has asked them.

Judicial interpretation

a way of thinking that explains how judges and all judiciary people should understand the law, especially important documents, legislative documents, constitutions, etc.

An unwritten constitution is

a constitution that is not written, but there is some sort of government.

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