one of the founders of the Tang Empire and its second emperor; he led the expansion of the empire into Central Asia
woman who wrote the novel, "Tale of Genji", about Fujiwara court culture, even though elite families of Fujiwara Japan did not encourage education of women
woman who married into the imperial family, seized control of government in 690 and declared herself emperor. Claimed to be a boddhisattva and favored Buddhists and Daoists over Confucianists. Ruled effectively until she was too old to rule, despite stories of her being evil.
The 1,100-miles (1,771 km) waterway linking the Yellow and Yangzi Rivers. Begun in the Han period and completed during Sui Empire.
a very large flat bottom sailing ship produced in the Tang, Song, and Ming Empires, specially designed for long-distance travel
Tale of Genji
a celebrated novel written by Murasaki Shikibu that used a syllabic system consisting of a set of more than thirty syllabic symbols adapted from Chinese characters that could represent the inflected forms of any Japanese word. It is about Fujiwara court culture.
Annam (Dai Viet)
the Chinese term for early Vietnam; its economic and political life was centered on 2 fertile river valleys, Red River and Mekong River; rice-based agriculture; wet climate and hilly terrain; its rival was Champa
term used to describe new approaches to understanding classic Confucian texts that became the basic ruling philosophy of China from the Song period to the 20th century.
Empire in central and south China (960-1126) while the Liao people controlled the north. Jin people controlled the north. Distinguished for its advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics.
empire unifying China and part of central Asia, founded in 618 and ended in 907. Their emperors presided over a magnificent court at their capital, Chang'an.
important culture of what is now the southwest US (700-1300 CE). Centered on Chaco Canyon in New Mexico and Mesa Verde in Colorado, this culture built multistory residences and worshipped in subterranean buildings called kivas.
Aztecs (Aztec Civilization)
also known as Mexica, these people created a powerful empire in central Mexico (1325-1521 CE). They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax.
largest and most powerful Andean empire. Controlled the Pacific coast of South America from Ecuador to Chile from its capital of Cuzco.
Maya (Mayan Civilization)
Mesoamerican civilization concentrated in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and in Guatemala and Honduras but never unified into a single empire. Major contributions were in mathematics, astronomy, and development of the calendar.
raised fields constructed along lakeshores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields. Permitted year-round agriculture.
the feathered serpent, a culture-god common to most Mesoamerican civilizations, believed to be the originator of agriculture and arts
capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed in its ruins.
a powerful city-state in central Mexico (100 BCE - 750 CE). Its population was about 150,000 at its peak in 600.