AP World History Ch. 10-11

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Li Shimin

one of the founders of the Tang Empire and its second emperor; he led the expansion of the empire into Central Asia

Murasaki Shikibu

woman who wrote the novel, "Tale of Genji", about Fujiwara court culture, even though elite families of Fujiwara Japan did not encourage education of women

Wu Zhao

woman who married into the imperial family, seized control of government in 690 and declared herself emperor. Claimed to be a boddhisattva and favored Buddhists and Daoists over Confucianists. Ruled effectively until she was too old to rule, despite stories of her being evil.

Chang'an

capitals of the Tang and Sui Empires

Grand Canal

The 1,100-miles (1,771 km) waterway linking the Yellow and Yangzi Rivers. Begun in the Han period and completed during Sui Empire.

Junk

a very large flat bottom sailing ship produced in the Tang, Song, and Ming Empires, specially designed for long-distance travel

Tale of Genji

a celebrated novel written by Murasaki Shikibu that used a syllabic system consisting of a set of more than thirty syllabic symbols adapted from Chinese characters that could represent the inflected forms of any Japanese word. It is about Fujiwara court culture.

Annam (Dai Viet)

the Chinese term for early Vietnam; its economic and political life was centered on 2 fertile river valleys, Red River and Mekong River; rice-based agriculture; wet climate and hilly terrain; its rival was Champa

Kamakura Shogunate

the first of Japan's decentralized military governments (1185-1333)

Koryo

Korean kingdom founded in 918 and destroyed by a Mongol invasion in 1259

Neo-Confucianism

term used to describe new approaches to understanding classic Confucian texts that became the basic ruling philosophy of China from the Song period to the 20th century.

Song Empire

Empire in central and south China (960-1126) while the Liao people controlled the north. Jin people controlled the north. Distinguished for its advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics.

Tang Empire

empire unifying China and part of central Asia, founded in 618 and ended in 907. Their emperors presided over a magnificent court at their capital, Chang'an.

Anasazi

important culture of what is now the southwest US (700-1300 CE). Centered on Chaco Canyon in New Mexico and Mesa Verde in Colorado, this culture built multistory residences and worshipped in subterranean buildings called kivas.

Aztecs (Aztec Civilization)

also known as Mexica, these people created a powerful empire in central Mexico (1325-1521 CE). They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax.

Inca

largest and most powerful Andean empire. Controlled the Pacific coast of South America from Ecuador to Chile from its capital of Cuzco.

Maya (Mayan Civilization)

Mesoamerican civilization concentrated in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and in Guatemala and Honduras but never unified into a single empire. Major contributions were in mathematics, astronomy, and development of the calendar.

Chinampas

raised fields constructed along lakeshores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields. Permitted year-round agriculture.

Khipu

system of knotted colored cords used by preliterate Andean peoples to transmit information

Quetzalcoatl

the feathered serpent, a culture-god common to most Mesoamerican civilizations, believed to be the originator of agriculture and arts

Tenochtitlan

capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed in its ruins.

Teotihuacan

a powerful city-state in central Mexico (100 BCE - 750 CE). Its population was about 150,000 at its peak in 600.

Li Yuan

Li Shimin's father who helped him found the Tang Empire

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