Final Exam - Terms

29 terms by wds0003 

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Positivism

a scientific approach to knowledge based on "positive" facts as opposed to mere speculation

Manifest Functions

the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern

Latent Functions

the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern

Androcentricity

approaching an issue from a male perspective only

Overgeneralization

this problem occurs when sociologists gather data only from men but then use that information to draw conclusions about all people

Gender Blindness

failing to consider gender at all

Culture Shock

personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life

Anticipatory Socialization

learning that helps a person achieve a desired position

Ascribed Status

a social position a person receives at birth or takes on involuntarily later in life

Achieved Status

a social position a person takes on voluntarily that reflects personal ability and effort

Master Status

a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person's entire life

Role Conflict

conflict among the roles connected to two or more statuses

Role Strain

tension among the roles connected to a single status

Hate Crime

a criminal act against a person or a person's property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias

Prejudice

a rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people

Discrimination

unequal treatment of various categories of people

Meritocracy

social stratification based on personal merit

Conspicuous Consumption

buying and using products because of the "statement" they make about social position

Race

a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important

Ethnicity

a shared cultural heritage

Stereotypes

a simplified description applied to every person in some category

Social Capital

the social knowledge and connections that enable people to accomplish their goals and extend their influence

Tracking

assigning students to different types of educational programs

Mainstreaming

including students with disabilities in the overall educational program

Chartering

giving public schools more freedom to try new policies and programs

Chronic illness

diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and stroke, that usually cause deaths

Social Epidemiology

the study of how health and disease are distributed throughout a society's population

Faith

belief based on conviction rather than on scientific evidence

Religion

a social institution involving beliefs and practices based on recognizing the sacred

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