Law in Society - Chapter 1

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Adversarial System

the judicial process whereby evidence is presented by two 2 opposing parties to an impartial judge or jury

Assizes

travelling courts

Case Law

a method of deciding cases based on recorded decisions of similar cases

Circuit Judges

judges of travelling courts

Code of Hammurabi

one of the earliest-known sets recorded laws, written by King Hammurabi of Babylon

Code of Li k'vei

a set of Chinese laws written around 350 BCE

Codified

arranged and accorded systematically

Common Law

law that developed in English courts; relies on case law and is common to all people

Divine Right

the concept that monarchs and their successors derived their power to rule from God and were accountable only to God

Great Laws of Manu

Indian laws compiled between 1280 and 800 BCE, previously transferred through oral tradition

* Habeaus Corpus

a court order designed to prevent unlawful arrest by ensuring that anyone detained is charged before a court within a reasonable amount of time

Justinian's Code

the clarification and organization of Roman law commissioned by Justinian 1

* Magna Carta

a charter of political and civil rights signed in 1215 at Runnymede in England

Mosaic Law

biblical or Hebrew law found in the book of exodus

Napoleonic Code

the civil law of France completed in 1804 (also called the French Civil Code)

Quebec Civil Code

the system of law used in Quebec for resolving private matters

* Restitution

payment made by the offender to the victim of a crime

Retribution

justice based on vengeance and punishment

Rule of Law

a principal of justice stating that the law is necessary to regulate society, that law applies equally to everyone , and that people are not governed by arbitrary power

Rule of Precedent

applying a previous decision to a case that has similar circumstances

Stare Decisis

a Latin phrase meaning "To Stand By The Decision"

Ten Commandments

laws given to Moses to guide the Hebrew people

The Great Binding Law

the constitution of the Iroquois Conferacy

Trial by Combat

determining guilt or innocence by having the parties fight a duel

Trial by Oath Helping

requiring friends of the accused to swear on the bible that he or she was innocent

Trial by Ordeal

requiring a person to undergo torture to determine guilt or innocence

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