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again, what is the autonomic nervous system?

visceral motor pathways

cranial nerves

12 doubly-named pairs of nerves equivalent to the spinal nerves in that they feed directly into the brain from the PNS

cranial nerve 1

olfactory

cranial nerve 2

optic

cranial nerve 3

oculomotor

cranial nerve 4

trochlear

cranial nerve 5

trigeminal

cranial nerve 6

abducens

cranial nerve 7

facial

cranial nerve 8

vestibulocochlear

cranial nerve 9

glossopharyngeal

cranial nerve 10

vagus

cranial nerve 11

cranial accessory

cranial nerve 12

hypoglossal

cranial nerve functional groups

motor, sensory, combination

motor cranial nerves

3, 4, 6, 11, 12

sensory cranial nerves

1, 2, 8

combination cranial nerves

5, 7, 9, 10

when classifying cranial nerves into functional groups, how does proprioreception factor in?

ignore it because all of them are involved in it to some extent

autonomic nervous system pathways

divided into pre and post ganglionic neurons

preganglionic neurons are derived from

neural tube

post ganglionic neurons are derived from

neural crest

autonomic nervous system divisions

parasympathetic, sympathetic

parasympathetic ANS

maintains internal homeostasis

sympathetic ANS

prepares the body for activity

parasympathetic ANS divisions

cranial, sacral portions

cranial portion

association with the cranial nerves

sacral portion

association with spinal nerves

parasympathetic ANS fiber divisions

long preganglionic, short postganglionic

nerves associated with the parasympathetic cranial ANS

oculomotor (3), facial (7), glosspharyngeal (9), and vagus (10)

oculomotor nerve's involvement in cranial portion of parasympathetic

ciliary muscles and iris diaphragm of eyes

facial nerve's involvement in cranial portion of parasympathetic

lacrimal, nasal, and salivary glands

glossopharyngeal's involvement in cranial portion of parasympathetic

salivary glands

vagus' involvement in cranial portion of parasympathetic

heart, lungs, digestive system of abdomen

sacral portion's involvement in parasympathetic

collon, rectum, anus, bladder, gonads, erectile tissue

in parasympathetic ANS, heart and lungs (decrease, increase)

decrease

in parasympathetic ANS, digestions (decreases, increases)

increases

fibers in the sympathetic ANS

short preganglionic, long postganglionic

there are ___ types of ganglia in the sympathetic ANS:

2: paravertebral ganglia, prevertebral ganglia

paravertebral ganglia

22-24 pairs located lateral to the vertebral column; aka chain ganglia

prevertebral ganglia: definition

3 located further from the vertebral column; aka collateral ganglia

prevertebral ganglia: names and how they came up with the names

celiac, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric; come from name of the artery they sit on

there are ___ possibilities for neural arrangement of ganglia:

3: preganglionic axon enters the paravertebral ganglion and synapses immediately with postganglion, which carries to effector; preganglionic axon enters first paravertebral ganglion but goes up or down to a different post ganglion to synapse; preganglionic enters the nearest paravertebral ganglion then goes out to the effector and synapses closer to there

distribution of sympathetic ANS ganglia

head, thoracic viscera, abdominal viscera, pelvic viscera, body wall and limbs

distribution of sympathetic ANS ganglia: head

output to structures associated with the head (intrinsic eye muscles, lacrimal and salivary glands, etc.)

distribution of sympathetic ANS ganglia: thoracic viscera

output to heart, lungs, esophagus

distribution of sympathetic ANS ganglia: abdominal viscera

output to organs of abdomen (stomach, intestines, kidneys, etc.)

distribution of sympathetic ANS ganglia: pelvic viscera

output to bladder, gonads, erectile tissue

distribution of sympathetic ANS ganglia: body wall and limbs

output to blood vessels, arrector pili, sweat glands

some specific actions of the sympathetic ANS

dilate pupils, bronchioles, and blood vessels; increase heart rate and blood flow to skeletal muscle; decrease peristalsis and glandular secretion

control of the ANS occurs in the

hypothalamus

control of the ANS: conscious or subconscious?

subconscious, but can be minimally influenced by consciousness (indirectly)

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